Abstract

A hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber with very high group birefringence is fabricated and characterized. Two independent methods, wavelength scanning and direct measurement of differential group delay (DGD), are used to obtain the group beatlength and group birefringence. The fiber illustrates a very high group birefringence of 0.025 at 1550 nm. The wavelength dependence of the group beatlength and group birefringence are also analyzed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, ???Low-loss single-polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence,??? Electron. Lett. 17, 530-531 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, R. D. Birch, and E. J. Tarbox, ???Single-polarization operation of highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,??? Electron. Lett. 19, 246-247 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, ???Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores,??? Electron. Lett. 15, 380-382 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Okoshi, K. Oyamada, M. Nishimura, and H. Yokata, ???Side-tunnel-fiber: An approach to polarizationmaintaining optical waveguide scheme,??? Electron. Lett. 18, 824-826 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,??? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, ???Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength,??? Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, ???Wavelength-sweeping technique for measuring the beat length of linearly birefringent optical fibers,??? Opt. Lett. 8, 122-124 (1983)
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,??? Opt. Express 8, 956-960 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, ???Low-loss single-polarization fibers with asymmetrical strain birefringence,??? Electron. Lett. 17, 530-531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Varnham, D. N. Payne, R. D. Birch, and E. J. Tarbox, ???Single-polarization operation of highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,??? Electron. Lett. 19, 246-247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, ???Preservation of polarization in optical-fiber waveguides with elliptical cores,??? Electron. Lett. 15, 380-382 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, K. Oyamada, M. Nishimura, and H. Yokata, ???Side-tunnel-fiber: An approach to polarizationmaintaining optical waveguide scheme,??? Electron. Lett. 18, 824-826 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

T. Okoshi, ???Single-polarization single mode optical fibers,??? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 17, 879-884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, ???Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,??? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. L. Heffner, ???Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,??? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M.S. Demokan, ???Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,??? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1291-1293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence,??? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, ???Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications,??? J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986)
[CrossRef]

OFC (1)

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, ???High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,??? in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) 2001, paper TuM2.

Opt. Express (3)

J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,??? Opt. Express 8, 956-960 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, ???Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength,??? Opt. Express 14, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, ???Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,??? Opt. Express 9, 676-680 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

C. D. Poole, and J. Nagel, ???Polarization effects in lightwave systems,??? Chapter 6 of Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, Academic Press (1997)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section of the hollow-core PBGF profile. The dark regions are air, while the white regions are glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The normalized transmission spectrum of the photonic bandgap fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of group beatlength measurement using wavelength scanning method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The optical spectrum collected by the OSA. (a) the whole spectrum; (b) spectrum around 1520nm; (c) spectrum around 1580nm. The length of the fiber under test is 357 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The spectrum of Windowed Fourier transformation of OSA trace. The OSA data spacing is 0.025nm, and window size is 4nm. (b) The fiber beat length and birefringence as a function of wavelength. The solid lines are the linearly fitted birefringence, and the resulting beat length.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

DGD of the fiber under test with length of 520mm. (b) The birefringence as a function of wavelength. The red line is the fitted line obtained by fitting the wavelength scanning data.

Equations (3)

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L B = Δ λ λ ¯ L ,
B = λ L B .
τ = λ L c L B = B · L c ,

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