Abstract

We report on observations of transient behavior of currents induced by the polarity reversal of a dc voltage applied across a nematic liquid-crystal cell. The curve of the time-evolved transient current reveals two peaks for the external voltage larger than a characteristic value. The temperature dependence of drift mobility of ion carriers implies that both the first and second peaks are caused by the director orientation in the bulk.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Sasaki, “Simulation of the voltage holding ratio in liquid crystal displays with a constant charge model,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6065–6070 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. H. Heilmeier and P. M. Heyman, “Note on transient current measurements in liquid crystals and related systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 583–585 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).
  6. A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. Sasaki, “Simulation of the voltage holding ratio in liquid crystal displays with a constant charge model,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6065–6070 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and P. M. Heyman, “Note on transient current measurements in liquid crystals and related systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 583–585 (1967).
[Crossref]

Altafim, R. A. C.

M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Costa, M. R.

M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and P. M. Heyman, “Note on transient current measurements in liquid crystals and related systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 583–585 (1967).
[Crossref]

Heyman, P. M.

G. H. Heilmeier and P. M. Heyman, “Note on transient current measurements in liquid crystals and related systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 583–585 (1967).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mada, H.

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mammana, A. P.

M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matsui, N.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R. B.

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, A.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Motoyoshi, K.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Naito, H.

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Nakanishi, T.

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

Natio, H.

H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
[Crossref]

Okuda, M.

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Saito, S.

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, N.

N. Sasaki, “Simulation of the voltage holding ratio in liquid crystal displays with a constant charge model,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6065–6070 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y.-C.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sonomura, H.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Sugimura, A.

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Takahashi, T.

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-Y.

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yoshihara, T.

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Lee, C.-Y. Wang, and Y.-C. Shih, “Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 513–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. N. Thurston, J. Cheng, R. B. Meyer, and G. D. Boyd, “Physical mechanisms of dc switching in a liquid-crystal bistable boundary layer display,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 263–272 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. Naito, K. Yoshida, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient charging current in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1119–1125 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Mochizuki, T. Yoshihara, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi, “An electric bilayer model of the transient current in a nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L322–L325 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Sasaki, “Simulation of the voltage holding ratio in liquid crystal displays with a constant charge model,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6065–6070 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Nakanishi, T. Takahashi, H. Mada, and S. Saito, “Transient behavior of voltage holding ratio in nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3752–3757 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. R. Costa, R. A. C. Altafim, and A. P. Mammana, “Ionic impurities in nematic liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 28, 1779–1783 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

A. Sugimura, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient current dependent on nematic director orientation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 180B, 313–328 (1990).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Natio, M. Okuda, and A. Sugimura, “Transient discharging processes in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 44, R3434–R3437 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Sugimura, N. Matsui, Y. Takahashi, H. Sonomura, H. Naito, and M. Okuda, “Transient currents in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8272–8276 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and P. M. Heyman, “Note on transient current measurements in liquid crystals and related systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 583–585 (1967).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transient currents induced by the polarity-reversal voltage of 3 V with t 0=5 s applied to a NLC cell at various temperatures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) t 1-V and (b) t 2-V (t 0=5 s) characteristics at various temperatures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) I 1-V and (b) I 2-V (t0 =5 s) characteristics at various temperatures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature dependence of the drift mobility of charges (t 0=5 s).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transient currents for various durations of the prefield of 3 V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Temperature dependence of charge mobilities.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E a ( z ) = ( σ - ε ε 0 ) exp [ z L D ( z ) ] ,
E P ( t ) = ( V d ) [ 1 2 exp ( t τ 0 ) ] ,
( 2 θ ( z , t ) z 2 ) ε 0 Δ ε 2 K 11 E ( z , t ) 2 sin 2 θ ( z , t ) γ 1 K 11 ( θ ( z , t ) t ) = 0 ,
J ( t ) = V C ( t ) t ,

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