Abstract

A new fabrication method for a sinusoidallike structure is described. The sinusoidal structure can be spontaneously self-formed on the surface of a substrate by focused ion-beam bombardment with raster scanning and an ion incident angle perpendicular to the sample surface (normal incidence). The substrate material is a silicon wafer coated with 2-µm-thick Ti–Ni thin film. We show by measurement and analysis of the grating characteristics at the working wavelength range from 50 to 1500 nm that the technique of self-organized formation is a valid approach for microfabrication of diffractive structures, and the spontaneously generated structure under ion bombardment is applicable for a sinusoidal grating that functions from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared wavelength range.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. For commonly used software based on the modified integral method for simulation and analysis of gratings, see <a href="http://www.pcgrate.com">http://www.pcgrate.com</a>
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  10. E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, ???Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136???138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, ???Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166???1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

T. Geue, O. Henneberg, and U. Pietsch, ???X-ray reflectivity from sinusoidal surface relief gratings,??? Cryst. Res. Technol. 37, 770???776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Serie

L. I. Goray and S. Yu. Sadov, ???Numerical modeling of nonconformal gratings by the modified integral method,??? in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 365???379.

Proc. SPIE

L. I. Goray, ???Modified integral method for weak convergence problems of light scattering on relief grating,??? in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies for Integrated Photonic Systems, R. I. Sutherland, D. W. Prather, and I. Cindrich, eds., Proc. SPIE 4291, 1???12 (2001).

Other

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

For commonly used software based on the modified integral method for simulation and analysis of gratings, see <a href="http://www.pcgrate.com">http://www.pcgrate.com</a>

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FIB micrograph of self-organized straight ripples by FIB random scanning with ion energy of 30 keV on the thin film of a Ti–Ni 2-µm-thick crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Part of the three-dimensional topography of the grating measured with the AFM in an area of 2. 5×2. 5 µm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-dimensional profile of a grating measured with an AFM over an area of 6 µm×6 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Efficiency (TE) of the sinusoidal grating versus wavelength range from 50 to 1500 nm with an incident angle of 15° with normal direction. Simulation was done with the PC Grate2000 computer program. The inset shows diffraction efficiency versus different diffraction orders for the 231.25-nm wavelength and a grating depth of 98 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured and Calculated Diffraction Efficiencies for the 632.8-nm Wavelength

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