Abstract

We study the transmission of fluorescence through periodically modulated metal films. In one-dimensional corrugated films, transmission is mediated by coherent scattering of surface plasmons directly excited by fluorophores on the surface. This scattering is shown to be a two-dimensional problem in that diffraction orders along both axes are obtained with well-defined states of polarization. In films consisting of two-dimensional arrays of sub-wavelength apertures, an additional mechanism exists in the direct transmission of fluorescence through the apertures, which is the dominant mechanism of transmission as shown by measurement of the radiation pattern from these structures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Vuckovic and M. Loncar and A. Scherer, ???Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,??? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1133 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. Y. Liu and J. Bishop and L. Williams and S. Blair and J. N. Herron, ???Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays,??? to appear in Nanotechnology (2004).
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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Shinada and J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, ???Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836???838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, ???Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4315???4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Sel. Topics in Quantum Electr

P. A. Hobson and J. A. E. Wasey and I. Sage and W. L. Barnes, ???The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,??? IEEE J. of Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 8, 378???386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Vuckovic and M. Loncar and A. Scherer, ???Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,??? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

T.W. Ebbeson and H. J. Lezec and H. F. Ghaemi and T. Thio and P. A.Wolff, ???Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,??? Nature (London) 391, 667???669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes and A. Dereux and T.W. Ebbesen, ???Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,??? Nature (London) 424, 824???830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

N. E. Glass and M. Weber and D. L. Mills, ???Attenuation and dispersion of surface polaritons on gratings,??? Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548???6559 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kitson andW. L. Barnes and J. R. Sambles, ???Surface plasmon energy gaps and photoluminescence,??? Phys. Rev. B 52, 11441???11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. C. Kitson and W. L. Barnes and J. R. Sambles, ???Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670???2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Gruhlke and W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, ???Surface-plasmon cross coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838???2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. Liu and J. Bishop and L. Williams and S. Blair and J. N. Herron, ???Biosensing based upon molecular confinement in metallic nanocavity arrays,??? to appear in Nanotechnology (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for light transmission measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission of coherent incident light at 633 nm wavelength through the 1-D corrugated gold film. The upper right diagram is the calculation of surface-plasmon coupling angles along both transverse axes, parameterized by diffraction order. The state of incident polarization necessary for optimal coupling is shown at specific angles. Measurement of transmitted light versus incident angle along the x-axis (lower right) using p-polarized incident light (black curve) and s-polarized incident light (red curve). Measurement of transmitted light versus incident angle along the y-axis (upper left) using incident light with 45° polarization, which only couples into a surface plasmon mode via the +1 diffraction order. In all cases, the transmission peaks correspond closely with calculation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement of transmitted light versus incident angle along the y-axis using light with 45° polarization (left) and -45° polarization (right). In order to break the degeneracy in peak transmission angle, the sample was tilted a few degrees along the x-axis. For the -45° measurement, the incident polarization did not exactly match the optimal polarization of the upper branch so that a portion of the peak of the lower branch is evident.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission of fluorescence with peak wavelength 670 nm through the 1-D corrugated gold film. The upper right diagram is the calculation of surface-plasmon coupling angles along both transverse axes, parameterized by diffraction order. The state of transmitted polarization is shown at specific angles. Measurement of transmitted light versus detection angle along the x-axis (lower right, measured without an analyzer); these transmission peaks are p-polarized. Measurement of transmitted light versus detection angle along the y-axis (upper left, measured without an analyzer); this transmission peak is ±45° polarized.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission of fluorescence with peak wavelength 670 nm through the 2-D gold nanoaperture array. The upper right diagram is the calculation of surface-plasmon coupling angles along both transverse axes, parameterized by diffraction order. Measurement of transmitted light versus detection angle along the x-axis (lower right, measured without an analyzer). Transmitted light versus detection angle along the x-axis (upper left) measured with a p-directed analyzer (black curve) and through an s-directed analyzer (red curve) demonstrating that the transmission peaks are p-polarized.

Equations (6)

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k t + n K x ̂ = k sp ,
k t = ω c ( x ̂ sin θ x + y ̂ sin θ y )
k sp = ω c ε m ε ε m + ε ,
k t = ω c ( x ̂ sin α x + y ̂ sin α y )
k sp = k sp ( x ̂ cos ϕ + y ̂ sin ϕ ) ,
k t + n K x ̂ + m K y ̂ = k sp ,

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