Abstract

Transmission enhancements of order 1000 have been reported for subwavelength hole arrays in metal films and attributed to surface plasmon (SP) resonance. We show that the properly normalized enhancement factor is consistently less than 7, and that similar enhancements occur in nonmetallic systems that do not support SPs. We present a new model in which the transmission is modulated not by coupling to SPs but by interference of diffracted evanescent waves generated by subwavelength features at the surface, leading to transmission suppression as well as enhancement. This mechanism accounts for the salient optical properties of subwavelength apertures surrounded by periodic surface corrugations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symp

A. A. Oliner and D. R. Jackson, ???Leaky-surface plasmon theory for dramatically enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture, Part I: Basic features,??? Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Columbus OH, USA, June 2003 (AP-S Digest Vol. 2, pp. 1091???1094).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, W.L. Barnes, and T.W. Ebbesen, ???Effects of hole depth on enhanced light transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4327???4329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, ???Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836???838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.M.J. Treacy, ???Dynamical diffraction in metallic optical gratings,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606???608 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A.P. Hibbins, J.R. Sambles, C.R. Lawrence, ???Gratingless enhanced microwave transmission through a subwavelength aperture in a thick metal plate,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4661???4663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.J. Lockyear, A.P. Hibbins, J.R. Sambles, and C.R. Lawrence, ???Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040???2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.E. Grupp, H.J. Lezec, K.M. Pellerin, T.W. Ebbesen, and T. Thio, ???Fundamental role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569???1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

C.Winnnewisser, F.T. Lewen, M. Schall, M.Walther, and H. Helm, ???Characterization and Application of Dichroic Filters in the 0.1-3-THz Region,??? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 744???749(2000).

J. Opt. A.

H.J. Lezec and T. Thio, ???Multiplicative two-surface enhanced transmission through subwavelength hole arrays???, submitted to JOptA.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

MORIS 2004

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio and R.A. Linke, ???Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording,??? presented at the Magneto-Optical Recording International Symposium 2004 (MORIS 2004), Yokohama, Japan (May 2004).

Nature

E. Altewischer, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, ???Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,??? Nature (London) 418, 304???306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, ???Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,??? Nature (London) 391, 667???669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J.M. Vigoureux, ???Analysis of the Ebbesen experiment in the light of evanescent short range diffraction,??? Opt. Commun. 198, 257???263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, ???Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,??? Opt. Commun. 225, 331???336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, ???Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,??? Opt. Commun. 200, 1???7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

H. A. Bethe, ???Theory of diffraction by small holes,??? Phys. Rev. 66, 163???182 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, ???On Bethe???s theory of diffraction by small holes,??? Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321???332 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D.E. Grupp, T.W. Ebbesen, and H.J. Lezec, ???Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,??? Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779???6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gmez-Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, ???Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,??? Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, ???Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,??? Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Lochbihler, ???Surface polaritons on gold-wire gratings,??? Phys. Rev. B 50, 4795???4801 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron and J.-M. Vigoureux, ???Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,??? Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.M.J. Treacy, ???Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,??? Phys. Rev. B 66, 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

M. Sarrazin and J.-P. Vigneron, ???Optical properties of tungsten thin films perforated with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,??? Phys. Rev. E 68, 016603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F.J. García-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, ???Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C.M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B.Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, ???Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, ???Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W.L. Barnes, W.A. Murray, J. Dintlinger, E. Devaux and T.W. Ebbesen, ???Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film???, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, ???Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845???2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T.W. Ebbesen, ???Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).

Science

H.J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R.A. Linke, M. Martín-Moreno, F.J. García-Vidal and T.W. Ebbesen, ???Beaming light from a sub-wavelength aperture,??? Science 297, 820???822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Hecht, Optics, (Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1998).

J.D. Kraus and K.R. Carver, Electromagnetics, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

B.A. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design, (Wiley, New York, 2000).

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