Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10-15 µm for in vivo studies. In this study, in vivo imaging of the rabbit gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 µm), using a broadband Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, trachea, and colon reveal high resolution details of tissue architecture. Definitive correlation of architectural features in OCT images and histological sections is shown. The ability of ultrahigh resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo advances the development of OCT as a potential imaging tool for the early detection of neoplastic changes in biological tissue.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Am. J. Gastroenterology (2)

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, J.F. Southern, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Gastroenterology 92, 1800-1804 (1997).

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterology 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R.C. Tiwari, T. Murray, A. Ghafoor, E. Ward, E.J. Feuer, and M.J. Thun, "Cancer Statistics 2004," CA Cancer J. Clin. 54, 8-29 (2004).

Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology (1)

M. Conio, G. Lapertosa, S. Blanchi, and R. Filiberti, "Barrett's esophagus: an update," Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology 46, 187-206 (2003).

Endoscopy (3)

S. Haag and G. Holtmann, "Reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 35, 112-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Brand, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Optical coherence tomography in the gastrointestinal tract," Endoscopy 32, 796-803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (1)

J. Poneros, S. Brand, and B. Bouma, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (4)

J.M. Poneros, G.J. Tearney, M. Shiskov, P.B. Kelsey, G.Y. Lauwers, N.S. Nishioka, and B.E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of the biliary tree during ERCP," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 55, 84-88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.V. Sivak, K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-runyawee, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (9)

C. Chudoba, J.G. Fujimoto, E.P. Ippen, H.A. Haus, U. Morgner, F.X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, "All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14 fs pulses at 1.3 µm," Opt. Lett. 26, 292-294 (2001).

F.X. Kartner, N. Matuschek, T. Schibli, U. Keller, H.A. Haus, C. Heine, R. Morf, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, "Design and fabrication of double-chirped mirrors," Opt. Lett. 22, 831-833 (1997).

G.J. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. Fujimoto, "High speed phase- and group delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).

B.E. Bouma and G.J. Tearney, "Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 531-533 (1999).

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).

A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, C.K. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M.V. Sivak, and J.A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design," Opt. Lett. 24, 1358-1360 (1999).

A.M Rollins and J.A. Izatt, "Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1484-1486 (1999).

G.J. Tearney, S.A. Boppart, B.E. Bouma, M.E. Brezinski, N.J. Weissman, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 543-545 (1996).

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, I.P. Bilinsky, and B. Golubovic, "Self phase modulated Kerr-lens mode locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 1839-1841 (1996).

Science (2)

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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