Abstract

We present an improved optical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and phase detection. The sensor incorporates a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device and a total internal reflection (TIR) device. In addition, a quarter-wave-plate (QWP) is placed in front of and behind the sensor. This gives rise to the optimization of the response curve and then the sensitivity. Theoretical simulations have been developed and verified by experimental results. With this new design, we obtain a sensitivity-tunable optical sensor whose resolving ability of refractive index is 1×10-6 RI.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. Barthelomew, H. Taneja, S. Yee, C. Jung, and C. Furlong, �??Development of a surface plasmon resonance sensor for commercial applications,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 38-39, 375-379 (1997), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.S. Johnston, S.R. Karlson, C. Jung and S.S. Yee, �??New analytical technique for characterization of thin films using surface plasmon resonance,�?? Matter. Chem. Phys. 42, 242-246 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A.A. Kruchinin and Y.G. Vlasov, �??Surface plasmon resonance monitoring by means of polarization state measurement in reflected light as the basis of a DNA-probe optical sensor,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 30, 77-80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. P.I. Nikitin, A.N. Griqorenko, A.A. Beloqlazov, M.V. Vcdeiko, A.I. Savchuk, O.A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, �??Surface plasmon0 resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,�?? Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 85, 189-193 (2000).
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  9. X. Yu, L. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. Wang, C. Yin, S. Zhu, �??Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 76, 199-202 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-M. Wu, Z.-C. Jian, S.-F. Joe, and L.-B. Chang, �??High sensitivity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 92, 133-136 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. part 1

B. Chadwick and M. Gal, �??An optical emperature sensor using surface plasmons,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. part I 32, 2716-2717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matter. Chem. Phys.

K.S. Johnston, S.R. Karlson, C. Jung and S.S. Yee, �??New analytical technique for characterization of thin films using surface plasmon resonance,�?? Matter. Chem. Phys. 42, 242-246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron

V.E. Kochergin, A.A. Beloglazov, M.V. Valeiko, and P.I, Nikitin, �??Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the view point of sensor applications,�?? Quantum Electron. 28, 444-448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B-Chem.

A.A. Kruchinin and Y.G. Vlasov, �??Surface plasmon resonance monitoring by means of polarization state measurement in reflected light as the basis of a DNA-probe optical sensor,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 30, 77-80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.I Nikitin, A.A. Beloglazov, V.E. Kochergin, M.V. Valeiko, and T.I. Ksenevich, �??Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. Barthelomew, H. Taneja, S. Yee, C. Jung, and C. Furlong, �??Development of a surface plasmon resonance sensor for commercial applications,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 38-39, 375-379 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, L. Zhao, H. Jiang, H. Wang, C. Yin, S. Zhu, �??Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 76, 199-202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Wu, Z.-C. Jian, S.-F. Joe, and L.-B. Chang, �??High sensitivity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,�?? Sens. Actuators B-Chem. 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators. A-Phys.

P.I. Nikitin, A.N. Griqorenko, A.A. Beloqlazov, M.V. Vcdeiko, A.I. Savchuk, O.A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, �??Surface plasmon0 resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,�?? Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 85, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the sensitivity-tunable optical sensor. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M, mirror; AOM, acousto-opto-modulator; BS, beam splitter; Pol, polarizer; PhD, photo-detector; QWP, quarter-wave-plate; Au, gold-film; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; TIR, total internal reflection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The zoom-in Fig. of the part enclosed with dashed line in Fig. 1. TE, TE wave; TM, TM wave.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation results. Line-a is the response curve without the two QWPs; line-b through line-f are response curves with the first QWP oriented as shown in Fig. 2 and the second QWP oriented with azimuth angles of 20°, 22.5°, 24°, 26°, and 28° respectively. Simulation conditions: glass substrate with the refractive index 1.515; Ti-film: 5 nm in thickness and with permittivity 3.84+12.15i; Au-film: 35 nm in thickness and with permittivity -12+1.26i; water sample with permittivity 1.332.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results. Solid line-a is the response curve without the two QWPs; line-b through line-g are the curves with the second QWP oriented at azimuth angles of 20°, 22.5°, 25°, 26°, 27.5°, and 30° respectively. Experimental conditions: glass substrate with the refractive index 1.515; Ti-film: 5 nm in thickness and with permittivity 3.84+12.15i; Au-film: 40 nm in thickness and with permittivity -12+1.26i; water sample with permittivity 1.332.

Fig.5.
Fig.5.

Results of real-time measurement of the three methods. Curve-a, from the intensity modulation, reveals the worst signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Curve-b is from the traditional phase modulation method. Curve-c is from our system and reveals a relatively lager phase-shift (17°).

Equations (12)

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I r E so E po cos ( Δ ω t ) ,
J AOM = [ e i ω 1 t 0 0 e i ω 2 t ] ,
J QWP 1 = [ 1 i i 1 ] ,
J SPR = [ r p ( SPR ) 0 0 r s ( SPR ) ] ,
J TIR = [ r p ( TIR ) 0 0 r s ( TIR ) ] ,
J QWP 2 = [ 1 + i cos 2 θ i sin 2 θ i sin 2 θ 1 i cos 2 θ ] ,
J pol = [ 1 1 1 1 ] ,
E out J pol · J QWP 2 · J TIR · J SPR · J QWP 1 · J AOM · [ 1 1 ] e i ω 0 t .
I m E out · E out *
= I dc + I cos ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ ) ,
Δ RI = Sd Δ ϕ Δ n ,
Δ RI = Sd Δ V Δ n ,

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