Abstract

We demonstrate that microspheres above a substrate act as microscopic lenses. Their Brownian motion causes the focal point to change abruptly, thereby creating characteristic intensity fluctuations which depend on the interaction between the spheres. To this end, superparamagnetic spheres in a magnetic field assemble into long pearl chains, where the intensity fluctuations depend on the stiffness of the chain. Upon assembling the superparamagnetic beads into a two-dimensional colloidal crystal, the fluctuations are restricted in two dimensions, and temporal network structures develop.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, UK, 1980).
  2. D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. S.M. Mansfield and G.S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  5. M.H. Wu and G.M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2273–2275 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissue using the fly eye principle,” Optics Express 11, 3605–3611 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3605.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J.P. Brody and S.R. Quake, “A self-assembled microlensing rotational probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 144–146 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Takei and N. Shimizu, “Gradient sensitive microscopic probes prepared by gold evaporation and chemisorption on latex spheres,” Langmuir 13, 1865–1868 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. J.N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102–1104 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. D.C. Prieve, “Measurments of colloidal forces with TIRM,” Adv. Colloid. Interfac. 82, 93–125 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

J.N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102–1104 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissue using the fly eye principle,” Optics Express 11, 3605–3611 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3605.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M.H. Wu and G.M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J.P. Brody and S.R. Quake, “A self-assembled microlensing rotational probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 144–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.C. Prieve, “Measurments of colloidal forces with TIRM,” Adv. Colloid. Interfac. 82, 93–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Takei and N. Shimizu, “Gradient sensitive microscopic probes prepared by gold evaporation and chemisorption on latex spheres,” Langmuir 13, 1865–1868 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S.M. Mansfield and G.S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abookasis, D.

J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissue using the fly eye principle,” Optics Express 11, 3605–3611 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3605.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J.N.

C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102–1104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Backman, V.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrend, C.J.

C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, UK, 1980).

Brody, J.P.

J.P. Brody and S.R. Quake, “A self-assembled microlensing rotational probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 144–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, S.

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chronis, N.

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fischer, T.M.

L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hane, K.

M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
[Crossref]

Helseth, L.E.

L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iga, K.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.H.

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johansen, T.H.

L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kino, G.S.

S.M. Mansfield and G.S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kopelman, R.

C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102–1104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kurosawa, T.

M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lanz, M.

D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lee, L.P.

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.L.

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, Y.H.

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mansfield, S.M.

S.M. Mansfield and G.S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[Crossref]

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D.W.

D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

Prieve, D.C.

D.C. Prieve, “Measurments of colloidal forces with TIRM,” Adv. Colloid. Interfac. 82, 93–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Quake, S.R.

J.P. Brody and S.R. Quake, “A self-assembled microlensing rotational probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 144–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rosen, J.

J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissue using the fly eye principle,” Optics Express 11, 3605–3611 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3605.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanada, T.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, N.

H. Takei and N. Shimizu, “Gradient sensitive microscopic probes prepared by gold evaporation and chemisorption on latex spheres,” Langmuir 13, 1865–1868 (1997).
[Crossref]

Taflove, A.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, H.

H. Takei and N. Shimizu, “Gradient sensitive microscopic probes prepared by gold evaporation and chemisorption on latex spheres,” Langmuir 13, 1865–1868 (1997).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, G.M.

M.H. Wu and G.M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, UK, 1980).

Wu, M.H.

M.H. Wu and G.M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Colloid. Interfac. (1)

D.C. Prieve, “Measurments of colloidal forces with TIRM,” Adv. Colloid. Interfac. 82, 93–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J.N. Anker and R. Kopelman, “Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102–1104 (2003).
[Crossref]

C.J. Behrend, J.N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, “Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 154 (2004).
[Crossref]

D.W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[Crossref]

S.M. Mansfield and G.S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615–2616 (1990).
[Crossref]

M.H. Wu and G.M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2273–2275 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaki, T. Kurosawa, and K. Hane, “Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 785–787 (1996).
[Crossref]

J.P. Brody and S.R. Quake, “A self-assembled microlensing rotational probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 144–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electronics Letters. (1)

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, and T. Sanada “Distribute-index planar microlens array prepared from deep electromigration,” Electronics Letters. 17, 452–454 (1981).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

H. Takei and N. Shimizu, “Gradient sensitive microscopic probes prepared by gold evaporation and chemisorption on latex spheres,” Langmuir 13, 1865–1868 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nano. Lett. (1)

J. Choi, Y. Zhao, D. Zhang, S. Chien, and Y.H. Lo, “Patterned fluorescent particles as nanoprobes for the investigation of molecular interactions,” Nano. Lett. 3, 995–1000 (2003).
[Crossref]

Optics Express (3)

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Optics Express 12, 1214–1220 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1214.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chronis, G.L. Liu, K.H. Jeong, and L.P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Optics Express 11, 2370–2378 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2370.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissue using the fly eye principle,” Optics Express 11, 3605–3611 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3605.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

L.E. Helseth, T.M. Fischer, and T.H. Johansen, “Paramagnetic beads surfing on domain walls,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 042401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, UK, 1980).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (788 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A single bead focusing and collecting the light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity fluctuations of a single bead diffusing on top of a garnet surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(AVI 199 KB) Blinking chain above a glass slide in presence of a magnetic field of about 500 A/m (6 Oe).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity fluctuations of three beads in a chain consisting of about 30 beads.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Chain above a glass slide in presence of a magnetic field of about 3000 A/m (38 Oe).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic drawing of the beads moving toward the domain wall.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The intensity increases as the bead is getting closer to the domain wall.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(AVI 788 KB) Two dimensional colloidal crystal observed in reflection with crossed polarizers.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The real crystal structure observed in transmission mode (a) and its Fourier transform (b). The image also shows the inverted intensity distribution of the same structure seen in reflection mode a few seconds later (c) as well as its Fourier Transform (d).

Equations (4)

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h m = l D ( B l D G ) ,
f a 2 n w n b n w .
Δ r λ f 2 n w a ,
Δ z λ 2 ( f n w a ) 2 ,

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