Abstract

The pulse shaping dynamics of a diode-pumped laser oscillator with cavity dumping operating in the solitary regime is studied experimentally and numerically. The stability of the laser system is investigated in dependence on the relevant laser parameters. With a stroboscopic detection technique the intracavity temporal and spectral pulse profiles are measured between two dumping events. The results are compared to the numerical analysis of the system. Due to the strong periodic disturbance of the solitary pulse imposed by the dumping process a second set of Kelly-side bands can be identified.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. Ramaswamy, M. Ulman, J. Paye, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Cavity-dumped femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 1822-1824 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Baltuska, Z.Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, "All solid-state cavity dumped sub-5-fs laser," Appl. Phys. B 65, 175-188 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. d. Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, "Generation of 13-fs, 5-MW pulses from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 572-574 (1994)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Schneider, A. Stockmann, and W. Schuesslbauer, "Self-starting mode-locked cavity-dumped femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser employing a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror," Opt. Express 6, 220- 226 (2000)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping," Opt. Lett. 29, 1288 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706-1716 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. D. Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. (in press) (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B70, S41 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, "Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 20, 16-18 (1995)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Controll of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. 34, 2024-2036 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)
  14. S. Chenais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaume, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Spectroscopy and efficient laser action from diode pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb 3+ : Sr 3 Y ( BO 3 ) 3," J. Opt. Spc. Am. B 19, 1083-1091 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. Jones, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Resonant sideband generation in streched-pulse fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1535 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, and I. Andonovic, "Sideband Generation Through Perturbations to the Average Soliton Model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1329-1333 (1992)
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Baltuska, Z.Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, "All solid-state cavity dumped sub-5-fs laser," Appl. Phys. B 65, 175-188 (1997)
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B70, S41 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. M. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, and I. Andonovic, "Sideband Generation Through Perturbations to the Average Soliton Model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1329-1333 (1992)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706-1716 (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Spc. Am. B (1)

S. Chenais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaume, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Spectroscopy and efficient laser action from diode pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb 3+ : Sr 3 Y ( BO 3 ) 3," J. Opt. Spc. Am. B 19, 1083-1091 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Controll of solid-state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. 34, 2024-2036 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Lett. (in press) (2004) (1)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. (in press) (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (342 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (846 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Intracavity energy and peak power (detected via second harmonic energy) as monitored by a photo diode. The red arrows indicate the dumping period.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Upper part: measured stability regions of the system in the transient regime. Bright areas: low rms noise=high dynamical stability; dark areas: poor dynamical stability. Lower part: second harmonic transient signal as monitored by a fast photodiode. The different regimes A (TR4), B (TR3), and C (TR2) are separated by unstable regions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured spectra (left) and autocorrelation traces (right). The upper two plots are taken in the ‘relaxed’ regime, they correspond to the results without cavity dumping, whereas shown below is the ‘transient’ regime with a dumping rate of 180 kHz. The autocorrelation width of 520 fs (524 fs) corresponds to a pulse width of 337 fs (340 fs).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of the directly diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with cavity dumping, employing a synchronous sampling scheme for autocorrelation and power spectrum of the pulse sequence during the transient.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured autocorrelation and power spectrum of the pulse sequence between two dumping events for a dumping frequency of 180kHz. Red color denotes high intensity, blue color low intensity. For a animated sequence showing the measured motion of the spectral sidebands see the attached avi-file. (Movie 342 kB)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated autocorrelation and power spectrum of the pulse sequence between two dumping events at a dumping frequency of 180kHz. Red color denotes high intensity, blue color low intensity. For an animated sequence showing the calculated motion of the sidebands see the attached avi-file. (Movie 846 kB)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Linear and logarithmic plots of the spectra immediately before the dumping event, at 180kHz repetition rate; red: simulation; blue: measurement. The black curve is the measurement of the unperturbed laser.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated pulse spectrum (left) and pulse envelope (right, red) and phase (black) immediately before the dumping event at 180kHz repetition rate. The ellipse marks the dominant spectral structures, which are shown in more detail in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Phase matching between linear and nonlinear phase. The matching points become apparent in the optical spectrum as small peaks (Kelly sidebands). Left: Sidebands due to the cavity round-trip periodicity. Right: Sidebands due to the dumping period. Red curves show the simulated spectra, whereas the blue curve shows the corresponding measurement. The cavity phase parabola is given by the solid black curve, the nonlinear phase modulo 2π by the dotted horizontal lines. The vertical dotted lines indicate phase matching between the nonlinear and the linear phase, coinciding with the spectral peaks.

Fig.10. .
Fig.10. .

pectral modulation for different dumping frequencies. Left: 540 kHz; Right: 880 kHz. The cavity phase is given by the solid black curve, the nonlinear phase by the dotted horizontal lines. The dumping ratio is 40%.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Stability regions of the system as predicted by simulation. Bright areas: low rms noise=high dynamical stability; Dark areas: poor dynamical stability. Upper horizontal axis: dumping frequency. Lower horizontal axis: number of roundtrips between dumping events at 22 MHz fundamental repetition frequency of the oscillator.

Fig.12.
Fig.12.

Left: calculated peak power evolution at a dumping rate of 80 kHz in red. Right: calculated transient of the soliton order in red. The pulse peak phase evolution is shown in black in both graphs. The dotted horizontal lines represent 2π-steps on the phase axes. The dotted vertical lines clarify the phase periodicity of the pulse. The distance between two dotted vertical lines indicates the number n phase of cavity round-trips during one phase period. The oscillations in the peak power and in the soliton order asymptotically approach the phase periodicity of the pulse.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter values used in the simulations

Metrics