Abstract

We present a compact and efficient design for slanted grating couplers (SLGC’s) to vertically connect fibers and planar waveguides without intermediate optics. The proposed SLGC employs a strong index modulated slanted grating. With the help of a genetic algorithm-based rigorous design tool, a 20µm-long SLGC with 80.1% input coupling efficiency has been optimized. A rigorous mode analysis reveals that the phase-matching condition and Bragg condition are satisfied simultaneously with respect to the fundamental leaky mode supported by the optimized SLGC.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  5. B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, “Optical-mode transformer: A III–V circuit integration enabler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Moerman, P. P Van Daele, and P.M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. P.V. Studenkov, M.R. Gokhale, and S.R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated Twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
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  8. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nano-taper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
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  15. R. W. Ziolkowski and T. Liang, “Design and characterization of a grating-assisted coupler enhanced by a photonic-band-gap structure for effective wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1033 (1997).
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  16. D. Pascal, R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, A. Koster, and S. Laval, “Optimized coupling of a gaussian beam into an optical waveguide with a grating coupler: comparison of experimental and theoretical Results,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2443 (1997).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  24. L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.
  25. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. M. Chambers, B. Wang, G. P. Nordin, and J. Jiang, “Stratified grating coupler for waveguide applications,” Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting in Washington, DC, USA on June 16–18, 98–100, 2003.
  27. Personal communications with Dr. Mark Hoffbauer in Los Alamos National Laboratory about slant etches using atomic oxygen technique.
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    [Crossref]
  29. T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239(1994).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Ulrich, “Optimum excitation of optical surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1467(1971).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385 (1982).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  37. K. Krishnakumar, “Micro-genetic algorithm for stationary and non-stationary function optimization,” SPIE 1196, 289 (1989).
  38. Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithm + Data Structures + Evolution Programs, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
  39. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithm in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, (Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 1989).
  40. R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [Crossref]
  41. K. C. Chang, V. Shah, and T. Tamir, “Scattering and guiding of waves by dielectric gratings with arbitrary profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 804(1980).
    [Crossref]
  42. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90, (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and T. R. Graham, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nano-taper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. W. Ang, et al., “Effects of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, H. Gualous, D. Pascal, A. Koster, and S. Laval, “High-Efficiency Light Coupling in a Submicrometric Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5773 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

S. M. Schultz, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Design of a high-efficiency volume grating coupler for line focusing,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2278 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (8)

R. W. Ziolkowski and T. Liang, “Design and characterization of a grating-assisted coupler enhanced by a photonic-band-gap structure for effective wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1033 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pascal, R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, A. Koster, and S. Laval, “Optimized coupling of a gaussian beam into an optical waveguide with a grating coupler: comparison of experimental and theoretical Results,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2443 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386 (6621), 143–149 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, “Optical-mode transformer: A III–V circuit integration enabler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Moerman, P. P Van Daele, and P.M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Waldhäusl, B. Schnabel, P. Dannberg, E. Kley, A. Bräuer, and W. Karthe, “Efficient coupling into polymer waveguide by gratings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9383 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, “Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a Silicon-based optical waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3092 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Experimental study of waveguide grating couplers with parallelogramic tooth profiles,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3101 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239(1994).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

K. Krishnakumar, “Micro-genetic algorithm for stationary and non-stationary function optimization,” SPIE 1196, 289 (1989).

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

R. Ulrich, “Optimum excitation of optical surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 1467(1971).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Ang, T. W.

T. W. Ang, et al., “Effects of grating heights on highly efficient unibond SOI waveguide grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 59 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bräuer, A.

Brazas, J. C.

Bulter, J. K.

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carenco, A.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, “Optical-mode transformer: A III–V circuit integration enabler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chambers, D. M.

D. M. Chambers, B. Wang, G. P. Nordin, and J. Jiang, “Stratified grating coupler for waveguide applications,” Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting in Washington, DC, USA on June 16–18, 98–100, 2003.

Chang, K. C.

Congdon, P.

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dannberg, P.

Demeester, P.M.

I. Moerman, P. P Van Daele, and P.M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dunkel, J.

L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

Evans, G. A.

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386 (6621), 143–149 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90, (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Forrest, S.R.

P.V. Studenkov, M.R. Gokhale, and S.R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated Twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Gokhale, M.R.

P.V. Studenkov, M.R. Gokhale, and S.R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated Twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithm in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, (Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 1989).

Graham, T. R.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and T. R. Graham, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gualous, H.

Haus, H.A.

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, “High contrast waveguide devices,” Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Tech. Dig. Ser.54, WB1/1 (2001).

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. M. Chambers, B. Wang, G. P. Nordin, and J. Jiang, “Stratified grating coupler for waveguide applications,” Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting in Washington, DC, USA on June 16–18, 98–100, 2003.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386 (6621), 143–149 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: Molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Joannopoulos, J.D.

Johnson, S. G.

Karthe, W.

Kley, E.

Koster, A.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krishnakumar, K.

K. Krishnakumar, “Micro-genetic algorithm for stationary and non-stationary function optimization,” SPIE 1196, 289 (1989).

Laval, S.

Layadi, A.

Li, L.

J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. C. Brazas and L. Li, “Analysis of input-grating coupler having finite lengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3786 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Experimental study of waveguide grating couplers with parallelogramic tooth profiles,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3101 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239(1994).
[Crossref]

Liang, T.

Liao, T.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Loktev, S. M.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lyndin, N. M.

A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
[Crossref]

Manolatou, C.

Masanovic, G. Z.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and T. R. Graham, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: Molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Mersali, B.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, “Optical-mode transformer: A III–V circuit integration enabler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Michalewicz, Z.

Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithm + Data Structures + Evolution Programs, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. Moerman, P. P Van Daele, and P.M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Mould, J.

L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

Nai-Hsiang, S.

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nordin, G. P.

J. Jiang, J. Cai, G. P. Nordin, and L. Li, “Parallel micro-genetic algorithm design of photonic crystal and waveguide structures,” Optics Letter. 28, 2381 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. M. Chambers, B. Wang, G. P. Nordin, and J. Jiang, “Stratified grating coupler for waveguide applications,” Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting in Washington, DC, USA on June 16–18, 98–100, 2003.

Orobtchouk, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

Pang, L.

J. K. Bulter, S. Nai-Hsiang, G. A. Evans, L. Pang, and P. Congdon, “Grating-assisted coupling of light between semiconductor glass wavwguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology 16, 1038 (1998).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, “Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a Silicon-based optical waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3092 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pascal, D.

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and T. R. Graham, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[Crossref]

Petit, R.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[Crossref]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90, (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Prewett, P.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ramdane, A.

B. Mersali, A. Ramdane, and A. Carenco, “Optical-mode transformer: A III–V circuit integration enabler,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1321 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roberts, C.

L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

Schnabel, B.

Schultz, S. M.

Shah, V.

Sheard, S.

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A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
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L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

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L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

Wu, S.-D.

Zhuo, J.

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T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
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T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhuo, and P. Prewett, “High-efficiency focusing waveguide grating coupler with parallelogramic groove profiles,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technology 15, 1142 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
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I. Moerman, P. P Van Daele, and P.M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308 (1997).
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IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

P.V. Studenkov, M.R. Gokhale, and S.R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated Twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
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Nature (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386 (6621), 143–149 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Li and S. J. Sheard, “Waveguide couplers using parallelogramic-shaped blazed gratings,” Opt. Commun. 109, 239(1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

V. A. Sychugov, A. V. Tishchenko, B. A. Usievich, and O. Parriaux, “Optimization and control of grating coupling to or from a Silicon-based optical waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3092 (1996).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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A. V. Tishchenko, N. M. Lyndin, S. M. Loktev, V. A. Sychugov, and B. A. Usievich, “Unidirectional waveguide grating coupler by means of parallelogramic grooves,” SPIE 3099, 269 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

D. M. Chambers, B. Wang, G. P. Nordin, and J. Jiang, “Stratified grating coupler for waveguide applications,” Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting in Washington, DC, USA on June 16–18, 98–100, 2003.

Personal communications with Dr. Mark Hoffbauer in Los Alamos National Laboratory about slant etches using atomic oxygen technique.

L. C. West, C. Roberts, J. Dunkel, G. Wojcik, and J. Mould,“Non uniform grating couplers for coupling of Gaussian beams to compact waveguides,” Integrated Photonics Research Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 1994.

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T. Tamir, Integrated Optics, (Springer Verlag, 1975).

Y. Hibino, “High contrast waveguide devices,” Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Tech. Dig. Ser.54, WB1/1 (2001).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: Molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90, (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

3D geometry of the SLGC for the normal coupling between fiber and waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2D cross sectional geometry of SLGC used in the 2D FDTD simulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Geometry of uniform SLGC optimized by µGA. (b) 2D FDTD result of magnitude squared time averaged Ez component for the uniform SLGC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Same as Fig. 3. (a), except for non-uniform SLGC. (b) Same as Fig. 3. (b), except for non-uniform SLGC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fill factor distribution of µGA optimized grating along x direction for the non-uniform SLGC shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lateral shift sensitivity analysis of the non-uniform SLGC design.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

2D FDTD simulated spectrum response of the non-uniform SLGC design.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Infinite periodic version of the SLGC for leaky mode finding with RCWA approach.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

K- vector diagram of the uniform fill-factor SLGC presented in Section 3.1, the inset shows the slanted grating.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Phase distribution from 2D FDTD simulation on the uniform SLGC.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) k-vector diagram of non-uniform SLGC. (b) 2D FDTD phase distribution of the non-uniform SLGC design.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. µGA optimization of a uniform SLGC

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η RCE = P RCE P i × MOI
η j = P j P i , with j = R , T , LCE
f = c ( 1 η RCE )
n m = β m k 0
β qx = k ix + q · 2 π Λ , q = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2
n ave = [ n 1 2 × ( fillfactor ) + n 2 2 × ( 1 fillfactor ) ] 1 2

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