Abstract

A valid optical system with a computer-generated hologram fabricated on a concave lens surface, for measuring large-aperture convex surface, is demonstrated experimentally. The CGH employed in this system has been constructed using a new technology that combines laser direct writing and lithography. This technology allows precise alignment, superior linear profile and high resolution of the gratings that compose the CGH. The particular characteristics of this new type of CGH could derive higher accuracy, efficiency and lower cost for testing aspherics in comparison to other CGH employed previously by other authors. We have designed and fabricated one system and measured a 110 mm-diameter convex surface of errors 300.6 nm P-V after compensating the alignment errors. It is believed that this kind of system can be used to measure even large aperture convex surface.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. James C. Wyant, “Interferometric testing of aspheric surfaces,” SPIE. 816, 19–39 (1987)
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Offner and D. Malacara, Null tests using compensators, (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 12
  3. J.C. Wyant and P.K. O’ Neill, “Computer generated hologram; Null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl.Opt 13, 2763–2769(1974)
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Mercier, “Holographic testing of aspherical surfaces,” SPIE. 136, 208–214(1977)
    [Crossref]
  5. J.C. Wyant and V.B. Bennett, “Using computer generated holograms to test aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2833–2839 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated hologram for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta. 23, 347–365 (1976)
    [Crossref]
  7. J.H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” Proc.SPIE. 2576, 258–269 (1955)
  8. J.H. Burge and D.S. Anderson, “Full aperture interferometeric test of convex secondary mirrors using holographic test plates,” Proc.SPIE. 2199, 181–192 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  9. J.H. Burge, “Fizeau interferometery for large convex surface,” Proc.SPIE. 2536, 127–137 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  10. J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Mercier and S. Lowenthal, “Comparison of in-line and carrier frequency holograms in aspheric testing”, Opt.Commun. 33, 251–256 (1980)
    [Crossref]
  12. Bernd Dorband and Hans J. Tiziani, “Testing aspheric surface with computer-generated holograms: analysis of dajustment and shape errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2604–2611 (1985),
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Method for correcting the joint error of a laser writer,” Opt. Express 11, 975–979 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 11, 992–995(2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
    [Crossref]
  17. J.H. Burge, “Measurement of large convex aspheres,” SPIE. 2871, 362–373 (1996)

2004 (1)

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J.H. Burge, “Measurement of large convex aspheres,” SPIE. 2871, 362–373 (1996)

1995 (1)

J.H. Burge, “Fizeau interferometery for large convex surface,” Proc.SPIE. 2536, 127–137 (1995)
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge and D.S. Anderson, “Full aperture interferometeric test of convex secondary mirrors using holographic test plates,” Proc.SPIE. 2199, 181–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

James C. Wyant, “Interferometric testing of aspheric surfaces,” SPIE. 816, 19–39 (1987)
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

R. Mercier and S. Lowenthal, “Comparison of in-line and carrier frequency holograms in aspheric testing”, Opt.Commun. 33, 251–256 (1980)
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

R. Mercier, “Holographic testing of aspherical surfaces,” SPIE. 136, 208–214(1977)
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated hologram for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta. 23, 347–365 (1976)
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J.C. Wyant and P.K. O’ Neill, “Computer generated hologram; Null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl.Opt 13, 2763–2769(1974)
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1955 (1)

J.H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” Proc.SPIE. 2576, 258–269 (1955)

Anderson, D.S.

J.H. Burge and D.S. Anderson, “Full aperture interferometeric test of convex secondary mirrors using holographic test plates,” Proc.SPIE. 2199, 181–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

Bennett, V.B.

Burge, J.H.

J.H. Burge, “Measurement of large convex aspheres,” SPIE. 2871, 362–373 (1996)

J.H. Burge, “Fizeau interferometery for large convex surface,” Proc.SPIE. 2536, 127–137 (1995)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge and D.S. Anderson, “Full aperture interferometeric test of convex secondary mirrors using holographic test plates,” Proc.SPIE. 2199, 181–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” Proc.SPIE. 2576, 258–269 (1955)

Dorband, Bernd

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated hologram for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta. 23, 347–365 (1976)
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Li, Fengyou

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
[Crossref]

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Lowenthal, S.

R. Mercier and S. Lowenthal, “Comparison of in-line and carrier frequency holograms in aspheric testing”, Opt.Commun. 33, 251–256 (1980)
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Lu, Zhenwu

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
[Crossref]

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Malacara, D.

A. Offner and D. Malacara, Null tests using compensators, (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 12

Mercier, R.

R. Mercier and S. Lowenthal, “Comparison of in-line and carrier frequency holograms in aspheric testing”, Opt.Commun. 33, 251–256 (1980)
[Crossref]

R. Mercier, “Holographic testing of aspherical surfaces,” SPIE. 136, 208–214(1977)
[Crossref]

Milster, T.D.

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

O’ Neill, P.K.

J.C. Wyant and P.K. O’ Neill, “Computer generated hologram; Null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl.Opt 13, 2763–2769(1974)
[Crossref]

Offner, A.

A. Offner and D. Malacara, Null tests using compensators, (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 12

Tiziani, Hans J.

Vernold, C.L.

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

Weng, Zhicheng

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Wyant, J.C.

J.C. Wyant and P.K. O’ Neill, “Computer generated hologram; Null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl.Opt 13, 2763–2769(1974)
[Crossref]

J.C. Wyant and V.B. Bennett, “Using computer generated holograms to test aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2833–2839 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyant, James C.

James C. Wyant, “Interferometric testing of aspheric surfaces,” SPIE. 816, 19–39 (1987)
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

Xie, Yongjun

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
[Crossref]

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Zhao, Jingli

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl.Opt (1)

J.C. Wyant and P.K. O’ Neill, “Computer generated hologram; Null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl.Opt 13, 2763–2769(1974)
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta. (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated hologram for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta. 23, 347–365 (1976)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Method for correcting the joint error of a laser writer,” Opt. Express 11, 975–979 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, Fengyou Li, Jingli Zhao, and Zhicheng Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 1 0, 1043–1047(2002)
[Crossref]

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 11, 992–995(2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yongjun Xie, Zhenwu Lu, and Fengyou Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12, 1180–1184(2004)
[Crossref]

Opt.Commun. (1)

R. Mercier and S. Lowenthal, “Comparison of in-line and carrier frequency holograms in aspheric testing”, Opt.Commun. 33, 251–256 (1980)
[Crossref]

Proc.SPIE. (3)

J.H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” Proc.SPIE. 2576, 258–269 (1955)

J.H. Burge and D.S. Anderson, “Full aperture interferometeric test of convex secondary mirrors using holographic test plates,” Proc.SPIE. 2199, 181–192 (1994)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge, “Fizeau interferometery for large convex surface,” Proc.SPIE. 2536, 127–137 (1995)
[Crossref]

SPIE. (4)

J.H. Burge, D.S. Anderson, T.D. Milster, and C.L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plate,” SPIE. 2199, 193–198 (1994)
[Crossref]

R. Mercier, “Holographic testing of aspherical surfaces,” SPIE. 136, 208–214(1977)
[Crossref]

James C. Wyant, “Interferometric testing of aspheric surfaces,” SPIE. 816, 19–39 (1987)
[Crossref]

J.H. Burge, “Measurement of large convex aspheres,” SPIE. 2871, 362–373 (1996)

Other (1)

A. Offner and D. Malacara, Null tests using compensators, (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 12

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout for measuring convex surface with diffractive optical element.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the laser writer system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interferogram

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase map of the convex surface under test

Equations (4)

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Δ W ( x , y ) = m λ ε ( x , y ) s ( x , y )
i th ring defined where ϕ CGH ( r ) { i λ D 2 λ i λ + D 2 λ
I 1 R = 1 cos 2 π m ( 1 a d ) 2 π 2 m 2 · 40 %
I 0 T = ( a d ) 2 · 96 % · 4 % · 96 % · ( a d ) 2

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