Abstract

We present three dimensional images of backscattered intensity, and to the best of our knowledge, the first 3D-images of retardation and fast axis orientation of human skin in vivo. The images were recorded with a phase resolved, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system which is based on a fast transversal scanning of the sample. The three dimensional data sets were obtained by recording several en face images at different depths within the sample. Intensity and retardation images are combined to a 4 dimensional animation to enhance the visualization of the three dimensional data set. The three dimensional information enables a more accurate interpretation of the structural and birefringence information as compared to 2 dimensional B-scans. Birefringence properties of different skin regions are presented and discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 287–291 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 300–302 (1999)
[CrossRef]

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, (Marcel Dekker, New York2002).

Bouwstra, J. A.

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Boxer, A. B.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. B. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Expr. 3, 212–218 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Colston, B. W.

Cucu, R. G.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. B. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

De Boer, J. F.

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 287–291 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 782–793 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-782
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo depth resolved birefringence measurements of human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1610–1612 (2002)
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. De Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High speed fiber based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 300–302 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Expr. 3, 212–218 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

Dong, C. Y.

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical coherence tomography,” Chapter 4 in Progress in Optics44, Elsevier Science B.V. (2002)

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, H.

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 112753–2761 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical coherence tomography,” Chapter 4 in Progress in Optics44, Elsevier Science B.V. (2002)

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. B. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Jee, S. H.

Jiao, S.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junginger, H. E.

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

Lo, P. W.

Lo, W.

Maitland, D. J.

Malekafzali, A.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Expr. 3, 212–218 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. B. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23147–149 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

R. G. Cucu, A. G. Podoleanu, R. B. Rosen, A. B. Boxer, and D. A. Jackson, “En face polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 113–119 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C. E.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. De Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, C. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High speed fiber based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474–479 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Expr. 3, 212–218 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasswimmer, J.

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 287–291 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.W.

Sun, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadrous, P. J.

P. J. Tadrous (2002), http://www.bialith.com/

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, (Marcel Dekker, New York2002).

Trost, P.

van den Bergh, B. A. I.

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Vroom, J.

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, “Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350–358 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta (1)

B. A. I. van den Bergh, J. Vroom, H. Gerritsen, H. E. Junginger, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Biochem. et. Biophys. Acta 1461, 155–173 (1999)
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J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

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E. Goetzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 94–102 (2004)
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M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 287–291 (2004)
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257–1263 (2004)
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Opt. Expr. (1)

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Opt. Express (4)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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Science (1)

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (504 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1039 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (995 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning scheme of the transversal OCT system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-Z image of a human fingertip in vivo obtained from a 3 dimensional data set. a) intensity image, b) retardation (blue δ=0°, red δ=90°), c) cumulative fast axis orientation (blue Θ=-90°, red Θ=+90°) (only values above a certain intensity threshold are displayed). d) and e) same section as in b) and c) with increased threshold. (Each image covers an area of 1.8×1mm2)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Animation of a 3 dimensional volume rendered data set obtained from a human fingertip in vivo. The opacity corresponds to the backscattered intensity, the retardation corresponds to the color coding (Blue δ=0°, red δ=90°, only values above a certain intensity threshold are displayed) (size 500kB) (the image covers a volume of 1.8×2×1mm3)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frame no.20 of movie showing several en-face images of a 3D data set of a human fingertip in vivo at different depth positions. Upper left: intensity image of a B-scan (x-z) (yellow line corresponds to the depth position of the en face images), upper right: en face (x-y) intensity image, lower left: en face cumulative fast axis orientation image (blue Θ=-90°, red Θ=+90°), lower right: en face retardation image (blue δ=0°, red δ=90°) The yellow (black) lines correspond to the B-scan position.(size 1MB) (The data set consists of a volume of 1.8×2×1mm3)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frame no.20 of movie showing several en-face images of the back of human hand in vivo at different depth positions. Upper left: intensity image of a B-scan (yellow line corresponds to the depth position of the en face images), upper right: intensity image, lower left: cumulative fast axis orientation (blue Θ=-90°, red Θ=+90°), lower right: retardation (blue δ=0°, red δ=90°). The yellow (black) line corresponds to the B-scan position. (Size 1MB)(The data set consists of a volume of 1.8×2×1mm3)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

B-scans obtained from a three dimensional data set (same data set as in Fig. 5) of the back of a human hand. a) retardation (blue δ=0°, red δ=90°), b) cumulative fast axis orientation (blue Θ=-90°, red Θ=+90°) The position of the B-scan is indicated as a black line in Fig. 5 (each image covers an area of 1.8×1mm2)

Equations (3)

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R ( z ) A 1 2 ( z ) + A 2 2 ( z ) ,
δ ( z ) = arctan ( A 2 ( z ) A 1 ( z ) ) .
θ = ( 180 ° Δ Φ ) 2 .

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