Abstract

The discrimination of bending and temperature sensitivities based on phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings is discussed. Their spectral evolution during phase-shifted grating formation by UV post-exposure corresponding to their initial coupling strength is also presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).
  3. H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).
  6. C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1007–1009 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).
  8. M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, “Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1091–1093 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Dupray, V.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Floreani, F.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Friebele, E. J.

Gwandu, B.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Han, W. T.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

James, S. W.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. S.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

LeBlanc, M.

Lee, B. H.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

McCall, M.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Oh, K.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Paek, U. C.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

Tsai, T. E.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vohra, S. T.

M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, “Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1091–1093 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weir, K.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Williams, J.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Ye, C. C.

Zeller, M.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Zhang, W.

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

Zhao, D.

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bend sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonant Peak Shift and Dual Peak Separation of Long Period Gratings for Sensing Application,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. on Electronics (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of long-period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing, IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating type dependence of temperature and strain coefficients and application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” in Proc. OFS 2002, 83–86 (2002).

V. Dupray, M. Zeller, W. Zhang, J. Williams, K. Weir, and M. McCall, “Novel UV post-processed fiber Bragg grating sensor for temperature and strain measurements,” in Proc. OFS 2000, 9–12 (2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Figure 1(a) Schematic of the refractive index change during the grating formation and UV post-exposure and (b) the peak transmittance of LPFG in terms of the product κL of the coupling constant κ and grating length L.: A-the first saturated grating, B-overcoupled grating, and C-the second saturated grating, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The theoretical and (b) experimental results of the transmission characteristics of the phase-shifted LPFG fabricated with the first saturated LPFG (region A of Fig. 1(b)) when the UV fluence increases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The theoretical and (b) experimental results of the transmission characteristics of the phase-shifted LPFG fabricated with the second saturated LPFG (region C of Fig. 1(b)) when the UV fluence increases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The transmission characteristics and (b) peak wavelength shift of the phase-shifted LPFG fabricated with the second saturated LPFG as the bending curvature increases. Linear fitting was 28.183 nm/m-1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The transmission characteristics and (b) peak wavelength spacing change of the phase-shifted LPFG with the temperature change. The left and right resonant wavelength shifts were shown in the inset. The wavelength spacing between left and right resonant peaks was reduced by the temperature change (-0.013 nm/°C).

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