Abstract

We show that optical waveguides with sub-wavelength transverse dimensions optimize the effective nonlinearity and provide desireable dispersive properties for generating supercontinuum with ultra-low threshold power. Using a tapered small-core microstructured fiber with a sub-wavelength diameter core, we generate an octave-spanning supercontinuum with 250 pJ pulses from a femtosecond modelocked Ti:sapphire oscillator.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 924–926 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. M. Hilligsøe, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Mølmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. J. Larsen, “Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Express 12, 1045–1054 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Ye and S. Cundiff, personal communication (2004).
  12. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Dumais, F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, A. Villeneuve, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Enhanced self-phase modulation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1996–1998 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. M. Zheltikov, “The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Optics and Spectroscopy 95, 410–415 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express, (to be published).
  18. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode properties of sub-wavelength-diameter silica, and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1025.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F.W. Wise, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and Z. Chen, “Long-wavelength continuum generation about the second dispersion zero of a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1558–1560 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. M. Dudley, personal communication (2004).
  28. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

2004 (3)

2003 (6)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zheltikov, “The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Optics and Spectroscopy 95, 410–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

2001 (3)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Akimov, D.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Andersen, T. V.

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F.W. Wise, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and Z. Chen, “Long-wavelength continuum generation about the second dispersion zero of a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1558–1560 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

Cundiff, S.

J. Ye and S. Cundiff, personal communication (2004).

Cundiff, S. T.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

Dukel’skii, K.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dumais, P.

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fajardo, J. C.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Finazzi, V.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express, (to be published).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 924–926 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express, (to be published).

Ghanta, R. K.

Gonthier, F.

Hall, J. L.

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

Harbold, J. M.

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Holzwarth, R.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homoelle, D.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. O.

Jones, D. J.

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

Kerbage, C.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khokhlov, A.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, W.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ko, T. H.

Koch, K. W.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kondrat’ev, Y.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kristiansen, R.

Lacroix, S.

Larsen, J. J.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

Li, X. D.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Lou, J. Y.

Mägi, E. C.

Maksimenka, R.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Man, T. P. M.

Mason, M.W.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

Mazur, E.

Moll, K. D.

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express, (to be published).

Mølmer, K.

Monro, T. M.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, C. K.

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ouzounov, D.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paulsen, H. N.

Pfeiffer, L. N.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Quochi, F.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Russell, P. St.J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

Schmitt, M.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shevandin, V.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Steinvurzel, P.

Stentz, A.

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, L. M.

Udem, T.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F.W. Wise, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and Z. Chen, “Long-wavelength continuum generation about the second dispersion zero of a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1558–1560 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. P. M. Man, and P. St.J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148–2155 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

Webb, W. W.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

West, J. A.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

West, K. W.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wigley, P. G. J.

Windeler, R. S.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F.W.

Ye, J.

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye and S. Cundiff, personal communication (2004).

Zheltikov, A. M.

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zheltikov, “The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Optics and Spectroscopy 95, 410–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zipfel, W.

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Akimov, M. Schmitt, R. Maksimenka, K. Dukel’skii, Y. Kondrat’ev, A. Khokhlov, V. Shevandin, W. Kiefer, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Supercontinuum generation in a multiple-submicron-core microstructure fiber: toward limiting waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 299–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1246–1248 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St.J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 511–515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, and K. W. Koch, “Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 219–223 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F.W. Wise, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and Z. Chen, “Long-wavelength continuum generation about the second dispersion zero of a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1558–1560 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Dumais, F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, A. Villeneuve, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Enhanced self-phase modulation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1996–1998 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 924–926 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Optics and Spectroscopy (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, “The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement of nonlinear-optical processes,” Optics and Spectroscopy 95, 410–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

See, for example,S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond Laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

See, for example,D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. Ye and S. Cundiff, personal communication (2004).

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express, (to be published).

J. M. Dudley, personal communication (2004).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, and M.W. Mason, “Efficient single-mode supercontinuum generation in submicron-diameter silica-air fiber waveguides,” in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (TOPS) Vol. 96, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The mode-field diameter and effective nonlinearity γ as functions of core diameter for a cylindrical glass waveguide in air.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Group velocity dispersion of a 554 nm diameter and a 2.3 µm diameter glass rod in air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of the (a),(b) untapered and (c),(d) tapered fiber cross sections.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The core diameter and outer fiber diameter measured at various points along the fiber taper.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Core diameter profiles of the tapered microstructured fibers.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Supercontinuum generated in (a) a 650 nm core diameter tapered microstructured fiber, (b) a 675 nm core diameter tapered microstructured fiber, and (c) an untapered microstructured fiber with 2.3 µm core diameter.

Equations (1)

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𝓓 HE 11 = 0.854 λ ( n core + n clad ) 0.6 ( n core n clad ) 0.4 .

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