Abstract

Optical waveguide demultiplexer was designed and fabricated by integration of two types of gratings, namely, guided-mode-selective focusing grating couplers (GMS-FGCs) and different-guided-mode-coupling distributed Bragg reflectors (DGM-DBRs) in a slab waveguide for constructing a wavelength-division-multiplexing chip-to-chip optical interconnecting board. In the waveguide demultiplexer, guided signal waves were separated wavelength-selectively by DGM-DBRs, and coupled out by GMS-FGCs to focused free space waves. Two-channel demultiplexing with 5-nm-wavelength spacing was demonstrated at around 850-nm wavelength.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Savage, “Linking with light,” IEEE Spectrum 39, 8, 32–36 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J.S. Ahearn, “256-channel bi-directional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093–1103 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, “Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1843–1855 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 443–451 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Ura, “Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits and Packaging, L.A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler, and J. R. Rowlette, eds., Proc. SPIE4652, 86–96 (2002).
  8. S. Ura, R. Nishida, and H. Nishihara, “Waveguide gratings for optical add-drop multiplexing of free space waves and guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 58 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. ITuG3-1–ITuG3-3.
  9. S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

2004 (1)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 443–451 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Savage, “Linking with light,” IEEE Spectrum 39, 8, 32–36 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Ahearn, J.S.

Baukens, V.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brunfaut, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Campenhout, J. V.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Châteauneuf, M.

Debaes, C.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faucher, J.

Frese, I.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hamada, M.

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

Hermanne, A.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Imaoka, Y.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

Kintaka, K.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
[Crossref]

Kirk, A. G.

Kotani, K.

Kufner, M.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kufner, S.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Laprise, E.

Meeus, W.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nishida, R.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, and H. Nishihara, “Waveguide gratings for optical add-drop multiplexing of free space waves and guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 58 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. ITuG3-1–ITuG3-3.

Nishihara, H.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, and H. Nishihara, “Waveguide gratings for optical add-drop multiplexing of free space waves and guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 58 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. ITuG3-1–ITuG3-3.

Nishii, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohmori, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

Ottevaere, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Razavi, K.

Sasaki, H.

Satoh, R.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
[Crossref]

Savage, N.

N. Savage, “Linking with light,” IEEE Spectrum 39, 8, 32–36 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takahara, H.

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 443–451 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takamori, T.

Thienpont, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

tuteleers, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ura, S.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

S. Ura, “Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits and Packaging, L.A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler, and J. R. Rowlette, eds., Proc. SPIE4652, 86–96 (2002).

S. Ura, R. Nishida, and H. Nishihara, “Waveguide gratings for optical add-drop multiplexing of free space waves and guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 58 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. ITuG3-1–ITuG3-3.

S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
[Crossref]

Ushikubo, T.

Venditti, M. B.

Vervaeke, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Voigt, S.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Volckaerts, B.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vynck, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wada, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 443–451 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. V. Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518–530 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512–514 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

N. Savage, “Linking with light,” IEEE Spectrum 39, 8, 32–36 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, M. Kufner, and I. Frese, “A refractive free-space microoptical 4×4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484–1486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, M. Hamada, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler for optical add/drop multiplexing of free-space wave with guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. 9th Microoptics Conf., (The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 2003), pp. 376–379.

S. Ura, “Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits and Packaging, L.A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler, and J. R. Rowlette, eds., Proc. SPIE4652, 86–96 (2002).

S. Ura, R. Nishida, and H. Nishihara, “Waveguide gratings for optical add-drop multiplexing of free space waves and guided waves,” in Tech. Dig. Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 58 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. ITuG3-1–ITuG3-3.

S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic wavelength-division-add/drop device for broad-band chip-to-chip optical interconnects,” in Proc. 16th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 177–178.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic image of WDM chip-to-chip optical interconnects

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the designed waveguide demultiplexer

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross section and refractive index profile of the designed waveguide

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photographs of the fabricated gratings: (a) the whole; (b) DGM-DBR; (c) at near end, and (d) at near center of GMS-FGC

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photographs of the top views of the fabricated device excited at (a) 854-nm and (b) 849-nm wavelength waves

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength dependence of the output efficiencies for 1st and 2nd grating pairs

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