Abstract

Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Methylene blue sensitized poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix: a novel holographic material

Stanislaw Bartkiewicz and Andrzej Miniewicz
Appl. Opt. 34(23) 5175-5178 (1995)

Amplified spontaneous emission and recoverable photodegradation in polymer doped with Disperse Orange 11

Brent F. Howell and Mark G. Kuzyk
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8) 1790-1793 (2002)

Absorption Spectrum of Benzotrifluoride Vapor in the Near Ultraviolet*

H. Sponer and D. S. Lowe
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39(10) 840-846 (1949)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science 281, 2016–2018 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, “Biologists join the dots,” Nature 413, 450–452 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Chang, M. Zhou, and C. P. Grover, “Information coding and retrieving using fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals for object identification,” Opt. Express 12, 143–148 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-143
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, “Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3920–3926 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  29. B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 203–213 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (5)

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, “Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3920–3926 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, “Biologists join the dots,” Nature 413, 450–452 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science 281, 2016–2018 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alivistos, A. P.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, G. P.

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, R. E.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balighian, E. D.

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battersby, B. J.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bertozzi, C. R.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blanski, R.

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bruchez, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bruehl, R. E.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bryant, D.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bryant, Z.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. C. W.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science 281, 2016–2018 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

Charles, P. T.

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coe, S.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dabbousi, B. O.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Danek, M.

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

de Gans, B.-J.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 203–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dejneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duineveld, P. C.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 203–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farmer, S. C.

S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, “Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3920–3926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fogg, D. E.

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frutos, A. G.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gaponik, N.

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ge, N.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gerion, D.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gin, P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginzburg, M.

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Goldman, E. R.

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grover, C. P.

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haley, K. N.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heine, J. R.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Helm, P. J.

O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, “Biologists join the dots,” Nature 413, 450–452 (2001).
[Crossref]

Herhold, A. B.

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, K.

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaiswal, J. K.

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jensen, K. F.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuno, M. K.

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahirl, J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, D. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, J. P.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matthews, D.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mattoussi, H.

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mauro, J. M.

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxwell, D. J.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meutermans, W.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Micheel, C.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mikulec, F. V.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moronne, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, U.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, C. B.

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nie, S.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science 281, 2016–2018 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ober, R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ottersen, O. P.

O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, “Biologists join the dots,” Nature 413, 450–452 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pal, S.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parak, W. J.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Patten, T. E.

S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, “Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3920–3926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peale, F.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pellegrino, T.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pietro, W. J.

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Powell, G. L.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radtchenko, I. L.

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radzilowski, L. H.

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rogach, A. L.

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scher, E. C.

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholes, G. D.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schrock, R. R.

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schubert, U. S.

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 203–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seitz, M.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Simon, S. M.

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smythe, M. L.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, A.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. Z.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sukhorukov, G. B.

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sundar, V. C.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. L.

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tran, P. T.

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trau, M.

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Treadway, J. A.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Veinot, J. G. C.

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weller, H.

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S. C.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerz, A. S.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Woo, W.-K.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yost, K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuen, P. K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanchet, D.

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zaziski, D.

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, “Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,” Adv. Mater. 14, 879–882 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, “Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 203–213 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, “Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 74, 841–847 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (4)

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,” Chem. Mater. 8, 173–180 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, “Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,” Chem. Mater. 9, 2117–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, “Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2113–2119 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, “Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 13, 3920–3926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, “Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378–6382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, “Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, and E. L. Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules,  30, 417–426 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, “Biologists join the dots,” Nature 413, 450–452 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,” Nature 420, 800–803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Biotechnol. (3)

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41–46 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahirl, “Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, “Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,” Science 293, 1803–1806 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science 281, 2016–2018 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivistos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281, 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of three single-color commercial CdSe QDs with emission (concentration) at 535±10 nm (0.25 mg/mL), 585±10 nm (0.17 mg/mL), and 640±10 nm (0.083 mg/mL), respectively. The inset photo was taken under 380 nm UV excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission spectra of a mixture of three single-color QDs in toluene excited at a λex ranging from 350 to 510 nm with a constant interval of 10 nm. The excitation peaks (λex=510, 500, 490, 480, 470, 460 and 450 nm) and three diffraction-induced second-order peaks (from λex=350, 360 and 370 nm) are also recorded in the measurement range. Inset: Two sets of selected spectral data normalized to a 10-level (0–9) intensity scale.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra of a QD/poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution excited with a stepwise scanning of λex ranging from 360 to 480 nm with a constant interval of 10 nm. Inset: Three sets of selected spectral data normalized to a 10-level (0–9) intensity scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

QD-based fluorescent cryptogram – creating and reading the codes under a programmed sequence of excitation.

Metrics