Abstract

Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Adv. Mater. (4)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, ???Full color emission from II-VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,??? Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Gaponik, I. L. Radtchenko, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Weller, and A. L. Rogach, ???Toward encoding combinatorial libraries: Charge-driven microencapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystals luminescing in the visible and near IR,??? Adv. Mater. 14, 879-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hines, G. D. Scholes, ???Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,??? Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. de Gans, P. C. Duineveld, and U. S. Schubert, ???Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments,??? Adv. Mater. 16, 203-213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, P. T. Tran, H. Mattoussi, P. T. Charles, and J. M. Mauro, ???Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays,??? Anal. Chem. 74, 841-847 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (4)

M. Danek, K. F. Jensen, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, ???Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe,??? Chem. Mater. 8, 173-180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. C. Veinot, M. Ginzburg, and W. J. Pietro, ???Surface functionalization of cadimium sulfide quantum-confined nanoclusters. 3. Formation and derivatives of asurface phenolic quantum dot,??? Chem. Mater. 9, 2117-2122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parak, D. Gerion, D. Zanchet, A. S. Woerz, T. Pellegrino, C. Micheel, S. C. Williams, M. Seitz, R. E. Bruehl, Z. Bryant, C. Bustamante, C. R. Bertozzi, and A. P. Alivistos, ???Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots,??? Chem. Mater. 12, 2113-2119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Farmer and T. E. Patten, ???Photoluminescent polymer/quantum dot composite nanoparticles,??? Chem. Mater. 13, 3920-3926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, ???Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,??? Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13, 40-46 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

E. R. Goldman, E. D. Balighian, H. Mattoussi, M. K. Kuno, J. M. Mauro, P. T. Tran, and G. P. Anderson, ???Avidin: a natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates,??? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6378-6382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Battersby, D. Bryant, W. Meutermans, D. Matthews, M. L. Smythe, and M. Trau, ???Toward larger chemical libraries: encoding with fluorescent colloids in combinatorial chemistry,??? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2138-2139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, ???Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,??? J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532-537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, ???Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,??? J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Alivisatos, ???Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,??? J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226-13239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, ???(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,??? J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

D. E. Fogg, L. H. Radzilowski, R. Blanski, R. R. Schrock, E. L. Thomas, ???Fabrication of quantum dot/polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,??? Macromolecules, 30, 417-426 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

O. P. Ottersen and P. J. Helm, ???Biologists join the dots,??? Nature 413, 450-452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, ???Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices,??? Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Biotechnol. (3)

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, ???Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,??? Nature Biotechnol. 21, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, ???Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,??? Nature Biotechnol. 21, 47-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, ???Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,??? Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, ???Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873-3876 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, G. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller and J. Lahirl, ???Rare-earth-doped glass microbarcodes,??? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

K. Jacobs, D. Zaziski, E. C. Scher, A. B. Herhold, and A. P. Alivistos, ???Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals,??? Science 293, 1803-1806 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, ???Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,??? Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, ???Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,??? Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bruchez, Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss and A. P. Alivistos, ???Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,??? Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of three single-color commercial CdSe QDs with emission (concentration) at 535±10 nm (0.25 mg/mL), 585±10 nm (0.17 mg/mL), and 640±10 nm (0.083 mg/mL), respectively. The inset photo was taken under 380 nm UV excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission spectra of a mixture of three single-color QDs in toluene excited at a λex ranging from 350 to 510 nm with a constant interval of 10 nm. The excitation peaks (λex=510, 500, 490, 480, 470, 460 and 450 nm) and three diffraction-induced second-order peaks (from λex=350, 360 and 370 nm) are also recorded in the measurement range. Inset: Two sets of selected spectral data normalized to a 10-level (0–9) intensity scale.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra of a QD/poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution excited with a stepwise scanning of λex ranging from 360 to 480 nm with a constant interval of 10 nm. Inset: Three sets of selected spectral data normalized to a 10-level (0–9) intensity scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

QD-based fluorescent cryptogram – creating and reading the codes under a programmed sequence of excitation.

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