Abstract

We investigate the refractive index profile evolution during the tapering of fused couplers. We assume the refractive index to be a linear function of the dopant concentration. The evolution of the refractive index profile is obtained by solving the diffusion-convection equation. The couplers are cleaved at different positions along the coupler axis, and the real refractive index profiles, measured using Refracted-Near-Field technique, are compared with the numerical solutions.

©2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Refractive index profile of fused-fiber couplers cross-section

Elio Pone, Xavier Daxhelet, and Suzanne Lacroix
Opt. Express 12(6) 1036-1044 (2004)

Power transfer in fused biconical-taper single-mode fiber couplers: dependence on external refractive index

Robert G. Lamont, Derwyn C. Johnson, and Kenneth O. Hill
Appl. Opt. 24(3) 327-332 (1985)

Modeling of symmetric 2 × 2 fused-fiber couplers

Suzanne Lacroix, François Gonthier, and Jacques Bures
Appl. Opt. 33(36) 8361-8369 (1994)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).
  2. J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and J. Lapierre, “Analysis of fused single-mode optical fiber bidirectional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1918–1922 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  4. J.D. Love and M Hall, “Polarisation modulation in long couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 519–521 (1985).
  5. A.W. Snyder, “Polarizing beam splitters from fused taper couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 623–625 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Pone, X. Daxhelet, and S. Lacroix, “Refractive index profile of fused-fiber couplers cross-section,” Opt. Express 12, 1036–1044 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1036
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Modeling of symmetric 2×2 fused-fiber couplers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8361–8369 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. Farget, J.P. Meunier, and P.E. Bonneau, “An Efficient Taper Shape Model for Fused Optical Fiber Components,” Int. Conf. Fiber Opt.Phot. Photonics-96” 1141–1146 (1996).
  9. L.J. Cummings and P.D. Howell, “On the evolution of non-axisymmetric viscous fibres with surface tension, inertia and gravity,” J. Fluid mech. 389, 361–389 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. N. McLandrich, “Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 24, 8–10 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. P. Botham, “Theory of tapering single-mode optical fibres by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 243–245 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. D.R. Uhlmann and N.J. Kreidl, eds. Glass: Science and Technology (Academic Press, 1986).
  15. K.I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 2, 185–196 (1979).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

L.J. Cummings and P.D. Howell, “On the evolution of non-axisymmetric viscous fibres with surface tension, inertia and gravity,” J. Fluid mech. 389, 361–389 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1988 (3)

M. N. McLandrich, “Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 24, 8–10 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. P. Botham, “Theory of tapering single-mode optical fibres by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 243–245 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
[Crossref]

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

J.D. Love and M Hall, “Polarisation modulation in long couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 519–521 (1985).

A.W. Snyder, “Polarizing beam splitters from fused taper couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 623–625 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

K.I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 2, 185–196 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, P.E.

C. Farget, J.P. Meunier, and P.E. Bonneau, “An Efficient Taper Shape Model for Fused Optical Fiber Components,” Int. Conf. Fiber Opt.Phot. Photonics-96” 1141–1146 (1996).

Botham, C. P.

J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. P. Botham, “Theory of tapering single-mode optical fibres by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 243–245 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bures, J.

Cummings, L.J.

L.J. Cummings and P.D. Howell, “On the evolution of non-axisymmetric viscous fibres with surface tension, inertia and gravity,” J. Fluid mech. 389, 361–389 (1999).
[Crossref]

Daxhelet, X.

Farget, C.

C. Farget, J.P. Meunier, and P.E. Bonneau, “An Efficient Taper Shape Model for Fused Optical Fiber Components,” Int. Conf. Fiber Opt.Phot. Photonics-96” 1141–1146 (1996).

Gonthier, F.

Hall, M

J.D. Love and M Hall, “Polarisation modulation in long couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 519–521 (1985).

Harper, J. S.

J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hornung, S.

J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
[Crossref]

Howell, P.D.

L.J. Cummings and P.D. Howell, “On the evolution of non-axisymmetric viscous fibres with surface tension, inertia and gravity,” J. Fluid mech. 389, 361–389 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krause, J. T.

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, S.

Lapierre, J.

Love, J.D.

J.D. Love and M Hall, “Polarisation modulation in long couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 519–521 (1985).

A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

McLandrich, M. N.

M. N. McLandrich, “Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 24, 8–10 (1988).
[Crossref]

Meunier, J.P.

C. Farget, J.P. Meunier, and P.E. Bonneau, “An Efficient Taper Shape Model for Fused Optical Fiber Components,” Int. Conf. Fiber Opt.Phot. Photonics-96” 1141–1146 (1996).

Noda, J.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
[Crossref]

Pone, E.

Reed, W. A.

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A.W.

A.W. Snyder, “Polarizing beam splitters from fused taper couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 623–625 (1985).
[Crossref]

A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

Walker, K. L.

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
[Crossref]

White, K.I.

K.I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 2, 185–196 (1979).
[Crossref]

Yokohama, I.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (5)

J.D. Love and M Hall, “Polarisation modulation in long couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 519–521 (1985).

A.W. Snyder, “Polarizing beam splitters from fused taper couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 623–625 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. N. McLandrich, “Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 24, 8–10 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. P. Botham, “Theory of tapering single-mode optical fibres by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 243–245 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. S. Harper, C. P. Botham, and S. Hornung, “Tapers in single-mode optical fibre by controlled core diffusion,” Electron. Lett. 24, 245–246 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Fluid mech. (1)

L.J. Cummings and P.D. Howell, “On the evolution of non-axisymmetric viscous fibres with surface tension, inertia and gravity,” J. Fluid mech. 389, 361–389 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, and J. Noda, “Analysis of fiber-optic polarizing beam splitters consisting of fused-taper couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1352–1359 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. T. Krause, W. A. Reed, and K. L. Walker, “Splice Loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 837–840 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K.I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 2, 185–196 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D.R. Uhlmann and N.J. Kreidl, eds. Glass: Science and Technology (Academic Press, 1986).

A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

C. Farget, J.P. Meunier, and P.E. Bonneau, “An Efficient Taper Shape Model for Fused Optical Fiber Components,” Int. Conf. Fiber Opt.Phot. Photonics-96” 1141–1146 (1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cross-section at f=0.358, contour lines are at: 0.7, 1.43, 2.17 and 2.9%
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Two fused fibers
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Degree of fusion and µ/γ
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Diffusion coefficient for the half of the coupler
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Calculated and measured normalized width and degree of fusion for the half of the coupler
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Profile comparison: f=0.989, measured width 88 µm, calculated width 90.3 µm, contour lines are at: 0.5, 0.77, 1.03 and 1.3%
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Profile comparison: f=0.876, measured width 140 µm, calculated width 140.6 µm, contour lines are at: 0.4, 1.07, 1.73 and 2.4%
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Two temperature distributions: (a) lower temperatures, same shape (b) flat distribution in the center (the distribution of the previous section is taken as reference)
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The effect of temperature distribution. Normalized width and the degree of fusion: (a) lower temperatures, same shape (b) flat distribution in the center (the results of the previous section are taken as reference)
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The effect of pulling speed

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

3 μ S v z + 1 2 γ Γ = const .
S t + ( v S ) z = 0
3 μ γ S v z + 1 2 Γ = const .

Metrics