Abstract

We have developed a field-worthy, high-definition, real-time depth-mapping television camera called the HDTV Axi-Vision Camera. The camera can simultaneously capture both an ordinary HDTV color image and a depth image of objects on more than 1280×720 pixels at a frame rate of 29.97 Hz, or on 853×480 pixels at a frame rate of 59.94 Hz. The number of detectable pixels per unit time was increased by about 5 times that of the prototype camera by improving the sensitivity and resolution of the depth-mapping camera. Short video clips demonstrate how depth information from the camera can be used to create a virtual image in actual television program production.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.
  2. K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, “Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask,” in 1st International Conference on Computer Vision ICCV (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, London, 1987), pp. 657–661.
  3. Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,  PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).
  6. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).
  7. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
  9. R. J. Hertel, “Signal and noise properties of proximity focused image tubes,” in Ultrahigh Speed and High Speed Photography, Photonics, and Videography ‘89: Seventh in a Series,Gary L. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1155, 332–343 (1989).
  10. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).
  11. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., http://www.hpk.co.jp/.
  12. S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

1989 (1)

S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,  PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Aida, T.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Asada, K.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biber, A.

R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).

Fujikake, H.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Hayashi, M.

S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hertel, R. J.

R. J. Hertel, “Signal and noise properties of proximity focused image tubes,” in Ultrahigh Speed and High Speed Photography, Photonics, and Videography ‘89: Seventh in a Series,Gary L. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1155, 332–343 (1989).

Iino, Y.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Iizuka, K.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Ikeda, M.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inokuchi, S.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, “Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask,” in 1st International Conference on Computer Vision ICCV (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, London, 1987), pp. 657–661.

Inoue, S.

Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, R. A.

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,  PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kanade, T.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kanatsugu, Y.

S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kano, H.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

Kawamura, E.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kikuchi, H.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Kimura, S.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Lange, R.

R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).

Lauxtermann, S.

R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).

Mitsumine, H.

Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oda, K.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Oike, Y.

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, “Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask,” in 1st International Conference on Computer Vision ICCV (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, London, 1987), pp. 657–661.

Seitz, P.

R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).

Shimoda, S.

S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
[Crossref]

Takizawa, K.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

Yamanouchi, Y.

Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yonai, J.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera (real-time depth-mapping camera),” Appl. Opt. 39, 3931–3939 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

Yoshida, A.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

(in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. (1)

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” (in Japanese) Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE Tech. Rep. 22, 19–24 (1998).

(in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE (1)

Y. Yamanouchi, H. Mitsumine, and S. Inoue, “Image-based virtual studio using ultra high-definition omnidirectional images,” (in Japanese) The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers ITE 55, 159–166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

Y. Oike, M. Ikeda, and K. Asada, “Design and implementation of real-time 3-D image sensor with 640×480 pixel resolution,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  39, 622–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting (1)

S. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, and Y. Kanatsugu, “New chroma-key imaging technique with hi-vision background,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting 35, 357–361 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (1)

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,  PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

R. Lange, P. Seitz, A. Biber, and S. Lauxtermann, “Demodulation pixels in CCD and CMOS technologies for time-of-flight ranging,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams, and Thomas Yeh, eds. Proc. SPIE3965, 177–188 (2000).

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, and K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

K. Sato and S. Inokuchi, “Range-imaging system utilizing nematic liquid crystal mask,” in 1st International Conference on Computer Vision ICCV (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, London, 1987), pp. 657–661.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, and K. Takizawa, “Axi-Vision Camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, Brian D. Corner and Joseph H. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).

R. J. Hertel, “Signal and noise properties of proximity focused image tubes,” in Ultrahigh Speed and High Speed Photography, Photonics, and Videography ‘89: Seventh in a Series,Gary L. Stradling, ed., Proc. SPIE1155, 332–343 (1989).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, Y. Iino, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, and T. Aida, “Real-time depth-mapping three-dimension TV camera (Axi-Vision Camera),” (in Japanese) IEICE Trans. on Information & SystemsJ87-D-II, No.6, (2004). (to be published).

Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., http://www.hpk.co.jp/.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(2.4 MB) Video clip from the Japan Broadcasting Station (NHK) broadcast produced using the HDTV Axi-Vision Camera. The high-definition TV program is the “50th Anniversary: Today is the birthday of TV. Grand finale.” broadcast live from NHK. A moving computer graphic image was amalgamated in real time with an image of a singer using the depth information.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of acquiring depth information by using intensity-modulated illumination and an ultra-fast camera shutter using an image intensifier.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Configuration of the HDTV Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph of the HDTV Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Quantum efficiency of the photocathode of the image intensifier.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmittance of the dichroic prism and the optical filter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

LED array units: (a) geometry, (b) spatial distribution of optical power.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Output image signal as a function of distance between the object and camera.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Depth resolution as a function of object distance.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Relationship between object reflectivity and depth resolution.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(2.5 MB) Video clip of depth-keying examples: (a) color image, (b) depth image, (c) objects in the furthest range only, (d) objects in the middle range only, (e) objects in the nearest range only.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(22.4 MB) Video clip of a virtual studio synthesized by combining live images with prerecorded scenes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of the HDTV Axi-Vision Camera

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I + ( t s , d ) = σ ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 s ( t s 2 d ν ) .
I ( t s , d ) = σ ( 4 π d 2 ) 2 s [ T 2 ( t s 2 d ν ) ] ,
d = 1 2 ν [ t s T 2 ( R 1 + R ) ] ,
R = I + I .
d = λ 8 ( 1 R 1 + R ) ,
n pe ¯ = η E A p τ ε m 2 ,
( S N ) pe = n pe ¯ σ pe = n pe ¯ = η E A p τ ε m 2 .
( S N ) phosphor = ( S N ) pe 1 N f = η E A p τ ε m 2 N f .
E ρ T L I 4 F N 2 S I d 2 ,
( S N ) phosphor η T L I A p τ d .

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