Abstract

We model the TPA-induced free carrier absorption effect in silicon Raman amplifiers and quantify the conditions under which net gain may be obtained. The achievable Raman gain strongly depends on the free carrier lifetime, propagation loss, and on the effective Raman gain coefficient, through pump-induced broadening.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 1731–1739 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang“Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15)2745–2747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.H. Yee and H.H.M. Chau“Two-Photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Comm. 10, 56–58 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K.W. DeLong and G.I. Stegeman“Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(20)2063–2064 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1954–1956 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett“Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).
  17. M.A. Mendicino“Comparison of properties of available SOI materials,” Properties of Crystalline Silicon, by Robert Hull 18.1 p. 992–1001 (1998).
  18. J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuIEEE Int. SOI conf. proc. Tucson, AZ, USA, 3–5 Oct, 1995p. 74–5.
  19. J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang“Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics (An Introduction), (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 3rd Ed.1985), ISBN 0-387-15578-3.
  21. T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K.K. Lee, D.R. Lim, L.C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang“Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15)2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1954–1956 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 1731–1739 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K.W. DeLong and G.I. Stegeman“Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(20)2063–2064 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett“Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J.H. Yee and H.H.M. Chau“Two-Photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Comm. 10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang“Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arai, E.

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett“Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bozeat, R. J.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

Cerrina, F.

Chang, R.K.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang“Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chau, H.H.M.

J.H. Yee and H.H.M. Chau“Two-Photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Comm. 10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

Cowan, A. R.

Darwish, A.M.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Day, S.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

DeLong, K.W.

K.W. DeLong and G.I. Stegeman“Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(20)2063–2064 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J.P.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freeouf, J.L.

J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuIEEE Int. SOI conf. proc. Tucson, AZ, USA, 3–5 Oct, 1995p. 74–5.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Groves, S.H.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Hopper, F.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

Houshmand, B.

Ippen, E.P.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C.N.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishimura, M.

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M.N.

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kao, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.C.

Kimura, T.

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuwuyama, T.

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.Q.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.K.

Liang, T.K.

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang“Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15)2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.R.

Liu, S.T.

J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuIEEE Int. SOI conf. proc. Tucson, AZ, USA, 3–5 Oct, 1995p. 74–5.

Mendicino, M.A.

M.A. Mendicino“Comparison of properties of available SOI materials,” Properties of Crystalline Silicon, by Robert Hull 18.1 p. 992–1001 (1998).

Nishizawa, J.

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, J.I.

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.M.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F.P.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Ralston, J.M.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang“Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

Roberts, S.W.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

Saito, S.

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scelsi, G.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, K.

K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics (An Introduction), (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 3rd Ed.1985), ISBN 0-387-15578-3.

Shin, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett“Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.I.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.W. DeLong and G.I. Stegeman“Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(20)2063–2064 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suto, K.

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.K.

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang“Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15)2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.J.

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.C.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yee, J.H.

J.H. Yee and H.H.M. Chau“Two-Photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Comm. 10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang“Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15)2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.W. DeLong and G.I. Stegeman“Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(20)2063–2064 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves“Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. Arai “Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. (1)

K. Suto, T. Kimura, T. Saito, and J. Nishizawa “Raman amplification in GaP-AlxGa1-xP waveguides for light frequency discrimination,” IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 145, 105–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett“Electrooptical Effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood“Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1172–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Saito, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J.I. Nishizawa“80-ps and 4-ns Pulse-Pumped Gains in a GaP-AlGaP Semiconductor Raman Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 395–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4740–4747 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

J.H. Yee and H.H.M. Chau“Two-Photon indirect transition in GaP crystal,” Opt. Comm. 10, 56–58 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang“Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics (An Introduction), (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 3rd Ed.1985), ISBN 0-387-15578-3.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F.P. Payne, S.W. Roberts, and M. Asghari, “Silicon Based Waveguides,” in L. Pavesi and D.J. Lockwood (Eds.) Silicon Photonics, ch. 8, 269–294 (2004).

M.A. Mendicino“Comparison of properties of available SOI materials,” Properties of Crystalline Silicon, by Robert Hull 18.1 p. 992–1001 (1998).

J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuIEEE Int. SOI conf. proc. Tucson, AZ, USA, 3–5 Oct, 1995p. 74–5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the SOI waveguides considered for the calculations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective gain, calculated for different values of effective recombination lifetime.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SOI rib waveguide, with photo-generated free carriers within the rib section. The carriers diffuse into the slab, effectively reducing the carrier density within the optically active area.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effective gain as a function of input pump intensity, for different values of Raman gain coefficient in silicon. Pump-broadening is responsible for the reduction in Raman gain.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effective gain curves for different values of linear propagation loss in the waveguide.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I P d z = ( α P + α P FCA ( z ) ) I P β I P 2 ,
d I S d z = ( α S + α S FCA ( z ) ) I S + ( g R 2 β ) I P I S .
Δ N = β · I p 2 · τ eff ( 2 · h ν ) .
D = ( n + p ) D n · D p n D n + p D p .

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