Abstract

We report playback performance results of volumetric optical data storage disks that are made from a class of light-absorbing (photo-chromic) compounds. The disks are exposed to a simulated space environment with respect to temperature and radiation. To test for temperature sensitivity, a vacuum oven bakes the disks for certain amount of time at a designated temperature. Radiation exposure includes heavy ions and high energy protons. Disks fail in high temperature and large proton-dose conditions. Heavy ions do not cause significant disk failure. The prevention of disk failure due to harsh space environments is also discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. S. Kawata, �??Three-dimensional Digital Optical Data-storage with Photorefractive Crystals,�?? Proc. SPIE 3470, 56-63, (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hisaka, H. Ishitobi, S. Kawata, �??Three dimensional optical recording with the ferroelectric domain reversal in a Ce-doped SBN:75 crystal: experiment and calculation,�?? Proc. SPIE 3740, 109-112 (1999)
  4. A. Toriumi, S. Kawata, �??Reflection confocal microscope readout system for three-dimensional photochromic optical data storage,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. D. Milster, Y. Zhang, J. Butz, T. Miller, E. P. Walker, �??Volumetric Bit-Wise Memories, �?? NASA earth science technology conference (2002).
  6. T. D. Milster, Y. Zhang, C. D. Pinto, E. P. Walker, �??A Volumetric Memory Device based on Photo-Chromatic Compounds,�?? NASA earth science technology conference (2001)
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    [CrossRef]
  9. E. W. Van Stryland, �??Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,�?? Prog. Crys. Grow. And Chac. 27, 279-311 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zhang, �??Single-beam two-photon-recorded monolithic multi-layer optical disks,�?? Proc. SPIE 4090, 174-178 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
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  12. For the detailed information of Arrhenius model and the failure rate, <a href="http://www.vishay.com/docs/rect_reliability.pdf">http://www.vishay.com/docs/rect_reliability.pdf</a>
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Malacara, �??Optical Shop Testing,�?? Wiley series in pure and applied optics, 2nd edition
  14. J. Barth, �??Ionizing Radiation Environment Concerns,�?? conference of single event effect criticality analysis, <a href="http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/papers/seeca3.htm">http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/papers/seeca3.htm.</a>
  15. T. Miyahira �??Initial SEE Tests of SanDisk Flash Memory,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/078-SanDisk2.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/078-SanDisk2.PDF.</a>
  16. J. Coss, �??Device SEE Susceptibility Update: 1996-1998,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Update.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Update.PDF.</a>
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  18. For more information of calculating penetration depth, <a href="http://tvdg10.phy.bnl.gov/LETCalc.html"http://tvdg10.phy.bnl.gov/LETCalc.html</a>.
  19. S. Guertin, �??Single-Event Upset Test Results for the Xilnx XQ1701L PROM,�?? IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, pp. 14-21 (1999) <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Xilinx_R1701L.pdf">href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Xilinx_R1701L.pdf.</a>
  20. L. Scheick, �??SEE measurement at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the SRAMs: WMS128K8 128*8, MT5C2568 32K*8, MT5C2564 64K*4,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/SRAMS.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/SRAMS.PDF.</a>
  21. G. Swift �??In-Flight Observations of Multiple-Bit Upset in DRAMs�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/CassDRAM.pdf">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/CassDRAM.pdf.</a>

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eighteenth IEEE (1)

H. Zhang, E. P. Walker, W. Feng, Y. Zhang, A. S. Dvornikov, S. Esener, P. M. Rentzepis, �??Multi-layer optical data storage based on two-photon recordable fluorescent disk media,�?? Eighteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage System, 225-236 (2000)

IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop (1)

S. Guertin, �??Single-Event Upset Test Results for the Xilnx XQ1701L PROM,�?? IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, pp. 14-21 (1999) <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Xilinx_R1701L.pdf">href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Xilinx_R1701L.pdf.</a>

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Toriumi, S. Kawata, �??Reflection confocal microscope readout system for three-dimensional photochromic optical data storage,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron (1)

D. C. Hutchings, �??Kramers-Kronig relations in nonlinear optics,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 24. 1-30 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Kawata, �??Three-dimensional Digital Optical Data-storage with Photorefractive Crystals,�?? Proc. SPIE 3470, 56-63, (1998)
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, �??Single-beam two-photon-recorded monolithic multi-layer optical disks,�?? Proc. SPIE 4090, 174-178 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Prog. Crys. Grow. And Chac. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, �??Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,�?? Prog. Crys. Grow. And Chac. 27, 279-311 (1993)
[CrossRef]

SPIE Annual Meeting (1)

T. D. Milster, �?? Semi-kinematic rails for construction of optical test stands�??, SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego, Aug. 2 (2001)

Other (12)

For the detailed information of Arrhenius model and the failure rate, <a href="http://www.vishay.com/docs/rect_reliability.pdf">http://www.vishay.com/docs/rect_reliability.pdf</a>
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, �??Optical Shop Testing,�?? Wiley series in pure and applied optics, 2nd edition

J. Barth, �??Ionizing Radiation Environment Concerns,�?? conference of single event effect criticality analysis, <a href="http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/papers/seeca3.htm">http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/papers/seeca3.htm.</a>

T. Miyahira �??Initial SEE Tests of SanDisk Flash Memory,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/078-SanDisk2.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/078-SanDisk2.PDF.</a>

J. Coss, �??Device SEE Susceptibility Update: 1996-1998,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Update.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/Update.PDF.</a>

T. Miyahira, �??Summary of SEE test results from BNL heavy ion test,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/9902bnl.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/9902bnl.PDF.</a>

For more information of calculating penetration depth, <a href="http://tvdg10.phy.bnl.gov/LETCalc.html"http://tvdg10.phy.bnl.gov/LETCalc.html</a>.

L. Scheick, �??SEE measurement at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the SRAMs: WMS128K8 128*8, MT5C2568 32K*8, MT5C2564 64K*4,�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/SRAMS.PDF">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/SRAMS.PDF.</a>

G. Swift �??In-Flight Observations of Multiple-Bit Upset in DRAMs�?? <a href="http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/CassDRAM.pdf">http://radnet.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/1/ReportFiles/CassDRAM.pdf.</a>

M. Hisaka, H. Ishitobi, S. Kawata, �??Three dimensional optical recording with the ferroelectric domain reversal in a Ce-doped SBN:75 crystal: experiment and calculation,�?? Proc. SPIE 3740, 109-112 (1999)

T. D. Milster, Y. Zhang, J. Butz, T. Miller, E. P. Walker, �??Volumetric Bit-Wise Memories, �?? NASA earth science technology conference (2002).

T. D. Milster, Y. Zhang, C. D. Pinto, E. P. Walker, �??A Volumetric Memory Device based on Photo-Chromatic Compounds,�?? NASA earth science technology conference (2001)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A physical description of two-photon absorption. (a) Energy-level diagram and molecular structure of unwritten and written forms, showing fluorescence (b) absorption spectra and fluorescence spectrum of the unwritten and written forms of the material.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The schematic description of the Arizona Readout Test Stand (ARTS) dynamic test stand. The optical components are mounted on a semi-kinematic rail structure. A knife-edge prism is used to split the fluorescence and the difference between the two signals is used as a track error signal (TES).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The read out signal from ARTS displayed on a oscilloscope; (b) the read out signal from ARTS displayed on a spectrum analyzer. The resolution bandwidth is 3 kHz, the video bandwidth is 300 Hz and the CNR is 37 dB.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) CCD image of fluorescent bits before heating. (b) CCD image of fluorescent bits after heating. No apparent change is observed compared to (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Time domain readout signal before heating exhibits a straight baseline and large signal amplitude. (b) Time domain readout signal after heating exhibits a strongly curved baseline, without a significant reduction in signal amplitude.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Ronchi test interferogram of the disk front surface before heating. Straight lines indicate a relatively flat surface. (b) Ronchi test interferogram of the disk surface after heating. Complex line patterns indicate a deformed surface.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The percentage of disks failed versus temperature and heating period

Tables Icon

Table 2. Test results of the photo-chromic disks after they are exposed to heavy ion radiation.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Test results of the photo-chromic disks after they are exposed to proton radiation.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Minimal thickness for shielding metal when the proton energy is 60 Mev

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ = Sum of failures Σ ( Quantity × Time to failure ) 1 hours .
λ ( T 2 ) = λ ( T 1 ) × exp [ ( E A K ) × ( 1 T 1 1 T 2 ) ] .

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