Abstract

Tunable phase shift up to 360° at 1 THz is achieved with a liquid crystal (LC) device. The key to this design is (1) the use of a nematic LC, E7, which exhibits a birefringence of ~0.17 (0.2–1.2 THz); (2) a LC cell (3-mm in thickness) with sandwiched structure to increase the interaction length while minimizing interface Fresnel losses; and (3) the use of magnetic field to align the thick LC cell and achieve continuous tuning of phase from 0 to 360°. This device can be operated over a broad range near room temperature.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Mittleman, “Terahertz Imaging,” in Sensing with THz radiation, (Spring-Verlag, New York, 2002).
  2. Peter H. Siegel,“Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,  50, 910–928 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang,“Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials,  1, 26–33 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Oxford, New York, 1983), Chap. 3.
  14. D.-D. Huang, X.-J. Yu, H.-C. Huang, and H.-S. Kwok,“Design of polarizing color filters with double-liquid-crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4638–4644 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).
  16. F. J. Kahn,“Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 1999), Chap. 3.
  19. R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. Eugene Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, New York, 1998), Chap. 4.

2004 (1)

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

D.-D. Huang, X.-J. Yu, H.-C. Huang, and H.-S. Kwok,“Design of polarizing color filters with double-liquid-crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4638–4644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter H. Siegel,“Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,  50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang,“Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials,  1, 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

F. J. Kahn,“Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[Crossref]

Baumgärtner, S.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-Y.

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Oxford, New York, 1983), Chap. 3.

Dolfi, D.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang,“Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials,  1, 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 1999), Chap. 3.

Hecht, Eugene

Eugene Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, New York, 1998), Chap. 4.

Hecker, N. E.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hidaka, T.

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Huang, D.-D.

Huang, H.-C.

Huignard, J. P.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[Crossref]

Joffre, P.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kahn, F. J.

F. J. Kahn,“Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[Crossref]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kleine Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Komori, K.

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Kwok, H.-S.

Labeyrie, M.

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lackner, A. M.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[Crossref]

Libon, I. H.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, K. C.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Margerum, J. D.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D.

D. Mittleman, “Terahertz Imaging,” in Sensing with THz radiation, (Spring-Verlag, New York, 2002).

Pan, C.-L.

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

Pan, R.-P.

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Oxford, New York, 1983), Chap. 3.

Siegel, Peter H.

Peter H. Siegel,“Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,  50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sugaya, T.

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Tsai, T.-R

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.-R.

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 1999), Chap. 3.

Yu, X.-J.

Zhang, X. -C.

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2372–2376 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang,“Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials,  1, 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

F. J. Kahn,“Orientation of liquid crystals by surface coupling agents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386–388 (1973).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. -C. Zhang,“Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3221–3223 (2000).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan,“Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner,“Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065–1067 (1993).
[Crossref]

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2821–2823 (2000).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer,“Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1156–1158 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Dolfi, M. Labeyrie, P. Joffre, and J. P. Huignard,“Liquid crystal microwave phase shifter,” Electron. Lett. 29, 926–928 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. (1)

T.-R Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang,“Electrically controlled room temperature terahertz phase shifter with liquid crystal,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett. 14, 77–79 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

Peter H. Siegel,“Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,  50, 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Bio. Phys. (1)

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-L. Pan,“Optical constants of two typical liquid crystals 5CB and PCH5 in the THz frequency range,” J. Bio. Phys. 29, 335–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jan. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Komori, T. Sugaya, M. Watanabe, and T. Hidaka,“Ultrafast coherent control of excitons using pulse-shaping technique,” Jan. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2347–2352 (2000).

Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

T. Kleine Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson,“Modulation THz radiation by semiconductor nanostructures,” Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett. 35, 343–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature Materials (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang,“Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials,  1, 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

R.-P. Pan, T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Wang, and C.-L. Pan,“The refractive indices of nematic liquid crystal 4’-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl in the THz frequency range,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (to be published in May 2004).
[Crossref]

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 1999), Chap. 3.

D. Mittleman, “Terahertz Imaging,” in Sensing with THz radiation, (Spring-Verlag, New York, 2002).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Oxford, New York, 1983), Chap. 3.

Eugene Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, New York, 1998), Chap. 4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The schematic diagram of the LC THz phase shifter. The inset shows the sandwiched structures of the LC cells used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The room-temperature (a) extraordinary (red circles) and ordinary (blue circles) refractive indices, (b) birefringence, and (c) imaginary extraordinary (blue circles) and ordinary (red circles) refractive indices of E7 are shown as a function of frequency between 0.2 to 1.2 THz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

. The measured THz waveforms transmitted through the LC phase shifter at various magnetic inclination angles. The inset shows the spectrum of the THz signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The phase shift of the THz waves versus the magnetic inclination angle. The solid curves are theoretical predictions. The red and blue circles are experimentally measured phase shift at 0.49 and 1.025 THz.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ ( θ ) = 0 L 2 π f c Δ n eff ( θ , z ) dz ,
δ ( θ ) = 2 π L f c { [ cos 2 ( θ ) n o 2 + sin 2 ( θ ) n e 2 ] 1 2 n o } ,

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