Abstract

We describe a computer-controlled low-coherence interference microscope, based on a Linnik interferometer configuration that can rapidly and accurately map the shape of micro-machined surfaces exhibiting steps and discontinuities. The novel feature of the system is a fast, switchable achromatic phase-modulator operating on the geometric phase, using a pair of ferro-electric liquid crystal devices.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. S. Lee and T. C. Strand, “Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3784–3788 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-steppping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. O. Freeman, T. A. Brown, and D. M. Walba, “Quantized complex ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3917–3929 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Achromatic phase-shifters:2. A quantized ferroelectric liquid-crystal system,” Opt. Comm. 117, 13–15 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Hariharan, “Fast, common-path switchable, achromatic phase-shifter for polarization interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 857–861 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1078–1080 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357–2360 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Hariharan, “Fast, common-path switchable, achromatic phase-shifter for polarization interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 857–861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357–2360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Achromatic phase-shifters:2. A quantized ferroelectric liquid-crystal system,” Opt. Comm. 117, 13–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-steppping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201(1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Bhandari, R.

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherel, L.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Achromatic phase-shifters:2. A quantized ferroelectric liquid-crystal system,” Opt. Comm. 117, 13–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, F.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, M. O.

Fujimoto, J.G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Fast, common-path switchable, achromatic phase-shifter for polarization interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 857–861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Achromatic phase-shifters:2. A quantized ferroelectric liquid-crystal system,” Opt. Comm. 117, 13–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357–2360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-steppping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201(1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, K.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, K. G.

P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

Lee, M.R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, G. D.

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazor, I.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, M.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357–2360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-steppping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201(1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C.J.R.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, T. C.

Svahn, P.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walba, D. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (4)

P. Hariharan, K. G. Larkin, and M. Roy, “The geometric phase: interferometric observations with white light,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 663–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-steppping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201(1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Fast, common-path switchable, achromatic phase-shifter for polarization interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 857–861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357–2360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. and Lasers in Eng. (1)

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C.J.R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (2)

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Achromatic phase-shifters:2. A quantized ferroelectric liquid-crystal system,” Opt. Comm. 117, 13–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Hariharan and P. E. Ciddor, “Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Integrated Circuit, Metrology, Inspection and Process Control, Proc. SPIE775 (Bellingham, Washington: SPIE), 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

GPM with FLC devices. Two FLC devices are sandwiched between two quarter-wave plates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the low coherence interference microscope using an FLC phase modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Visibility of the interference fringes as a function of the position of the sample along the z axis.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface profile of an integrated circuit measured with our system. The lateral dimensions of the object are 25 µm×43 µm, height 1 µm.

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