Abstract

We report a tunable microdoublet lens capable of creating dual modes of biconvex or meniscus lens. The microdoublet lens consists of a tunable liquid-filled lens and a solid negative lens. It can be tuned either by changing the shape of the liquid-filled lens into bi-convex or meniscus or by changing a filling media with different refractive index. The micro-fabrication is based on photopolymer microdispensing and elastomer micromolding methods. The microdoublet lens can provide a solution for minimizing optical aberrations and maximizing the tunability of focal length or field of view by controlling variable and fixed lens curvatures.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phy. Lett.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, �??Tunable liquid microlens,�?? Appl. Phy. Lett. 82, 316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. Lo, �??Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,�?? Appl. Phy. Lett. 82, 3171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE 2002

J. Seo, E. Ertekin, M. S. Pio, and L. P. Lee, �??Self-assembly templates by selective plasma surface modification of micropatterned photoresist,�?? 15th IEEE International Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conference, 192 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, �??Variable focal length microlenses,�?? Opt. Commun. 177, 157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day and L. G. Commander, �??Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses,�?? Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Timoshenko, Theory of Plates and Shells, (McGraw-Hill, 1940).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The basic configurations of a tunable microdoublet lens consisting of a tunable liquidfilled microlens and a solid negative lens of different refractive indices (nelastomer and nliquid) acting in combination.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microfabrication procedure of tunable microdoublet lens array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of tunable microdoublet lens array: (a) solid negative elastomer microlens before bonding with thin elastomer, (b) elastomer cavity with a distensible thin circular elastomer membrane, which is connected with microfluidic channels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lenslet profile and scanning electron microscopic image of a lenslet dispensed onto a hydrophobic ring confinement on lens mold.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fixed lens curvatures vs. the nanoliter-scale microdroplet volume of a photopolymer dispensed onto a hydrophobic ring confinement with different inner diameters on a hydrophilic substrate of a lenslet mold.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Maximum deflection of circular silicone elastomer membranes according to the applied pressure drop: (a) with different membrane thickness and constant 500 µm in diameter, (b) with different membrane diameters and constant 16.66 µm in thickness.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Change of a variable lens curvature of a 350 µm in diameter and 27 µm thick circular elastomer membrane according to pressure drop between -10kPa to 10 kPa measured with optical interferometer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental set-up for focal length measurement(a) and the measured f-number of the microdoublet lens filled with DI water (nwater=1.33<nPDMS=1.41) and oil (noil=1.52>nPDMS=1.41) according to pressure changes (b). [Media 1]

Equations (3)

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w o = 0.662 a ( Δ P a Et ) 1 3
R v = ( w o 2 + φ 2 ) 2 w o
f = R v ( 1 n E ) + ( n L n E ) R v R f

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