Abstract

The calibration of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems is typically done in the laboratory using an integrating sphere, which usually produces a signal that is red rich. Using such a source to calibrate environmental monitoring systems presents some difficulties. Not only is much of the calibration data outside the range and spectral quality of data values that are expected to be captured in the field, using these measurements alone may exaggerate the optical flaws found within the system. Left unaccounted for, these flaws will become embedded in to the calibration, and thus, they will be passed on to the field data when the calibration is applied. To address these issues, we used a series of well-characterized spectral filters within our calibration. It provided us with a set us stable spectral standards to test and account for inadequacies in the spectral and radiometric integrity of the optical imager.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).
  4. C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Imagery over Turbid Coastal Waters: A Practical Method,” Remote Sensing of Environment.74, no. 2 (2000).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2003 (1)

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11,639–611,652 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

1994 (1)

R. J. Birk and T. B. McCord, “Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Systems,” IEEE AES Systems Magazine 9, 26–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” Journal of Geophysical Research 93(C9), 10,749–710,768 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 18, 117–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abel, P.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Ahmad, Z.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Barnes, R.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Biggar, S.

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

Birk, R. J.

R. J. Birk and T. B. McCord, “Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Systems,” IEEE AES Systems Magazine 9, 26–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bissett, W. P.

Bowles, J.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Burke, B. E.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Carder, K. L.

C. Cattrall, K. L. Carder, K. J. Thome, and H. R. Gordon, “Solar-reflectance-based calibration of spectral radiometers,” Geophys.Res. Lett. 29, 2.1–2.4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11,639–611,652 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Imagery over Turbid Coastal Waters: A Practical Method,” Remote Sensing of Environment.74, no. 2 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cattrall, C.

C. Cattrall, K. L. Carder, K. J. Thome, and H. R. Gordon, “Solar-reflectance-based calibration of spectral radiometers,” Geophys.Res. Lett. 29, 2.1–2.4 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. F.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11,639–611,652 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Daniels, P. J.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Davis, C.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Davis, C. O.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “The Ocean PHILLS Hyperspectral Imager: Design, Characterization, and Calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-4-210
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line by line based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” presented at the Imaging Spectrometry III, 1997.

M. J. Montes, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” presented at the GeoSpatial Image and Data Exploration II, Orlando, FL, 2001.

Deschamps, P.-Y.

Downes, T.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Downes, T. V.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Fargion, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Fisher, J.

Forte, A. R.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Fougnie, B.

Frouin, R.

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Gao, B. C.

M. J. Montes, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” presented at the GeoSpatial Image and Data Exploration II, Orlando, FL, 2001.

Gao, B.-C.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line by line based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” presented at the Imaging Spectrometry III, 1997.

Godin, M.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Goebel, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Gordon, H. R.

C. Cattrall, K. L. Carder, K. J. Thome, and H. R. Gordon, “Solar-reflectance-based calibration of spectral radiometers,” Geophys.Res. Lett. 29, 2.1–2.4 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery, A review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Green, R. O.

Hamilton, M.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

Harrison, D. C.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Hinds, M.

G. M. Williams, H. H. Marsh, and M. Hinds, “Back-illuminated CCD imagers for high information content digital photography,” presented at the Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, San Jose, CA, (1998).

Holyer, R. J.

J. C. Sandidge and R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sensing of Environment 65, 341–352 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Imagery over Turbid Coastal Waters: A Practical Method,” Remote Sensing of Environment.74, no. 2 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. M.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Kaplan, M. A.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Kohler, D. D. R.

D. D. R. Kohler, “An evaluation of a derivative based hyperspectral bathymetric algorithm,” Dissertation Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, (2001).

Korwan, D.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, and R. A. Reisse, “The Ocean PHILLS Hyperspectral Imager: Design, Characterization, and Calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-4-210
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Kosicki, B. B.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Leathers, R.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leathers, R. A.

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z.

Lincoln, G. A.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Louchard, E.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maffione, R.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Maritorena, S.

Marsh, H. H.

G. M. Williams, H. H. Marsh, and M. Hinds, “Back-illuminated CCD imagers for high information content digital photography,” presented at the Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, San Jose, CA, (1998).

McClain, C.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

McCord, T. B.

R. J. Birk and T. B. McCord, “Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Systems,” IEEE AES Systems Magazine 9, 26–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

McLean, S.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Meister, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Menzies, D.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Mobley, C. D.

Montes, M. J.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. J. Montes, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” presented at the GeoSpatial Image and Data Exploration II, Orlando, FL, 2001.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” Journal of Geophysical Research 93(C9), 10,749–710,768 (1988).

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 18, 117–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery, A review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Mountain, R. W.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Imagery over Turbid Coastal Waters: A Practical Method,” Remote Sensing of Environment.74, no. 2 (2000).
[Crossref]

Müller-Karger, F.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ovidio, F.

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” App. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref]

Palmer, J. M.

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11,639–611,652 (2001).
[Crossref]

Poteau, A.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Reid, R.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reinersman, P.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

Reisse, R. A.

Rhea, W. J.

Rijkeboer, M.

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” App. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref]

Robertson, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Robinson, W.

Ruddick, K.

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” App. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ryer, A.

A. Ryer, Light Measurement Handbook (International Light, Inc., Newburyport, MA, 1997), p. 64.

Sandidge, J. C.

J. C. Sandidge and R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sensing of Environment 65, 341–352 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

Siegel, D.

Slater, P. N.

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Snyder, W. A.

Stephens, F.

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Steward, R. G.

Thome, K. J.

C. Cattrall, K. L. Carder, K. J. Thome, and H. R. Gordon, “Solar-reflectance-based calibration of spectral radiometers,” Geophys.Res. Lett. 29, 2.1–2.4 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

Usiak, N.

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

Wang, M.

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, H. H. Marsh, and M. Hinds, “Back-illuminated CCD imagers for high information content digital photography,” presented at the Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, San Jose, CA, (1998).

App. Opt. (1)

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” App. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Boundary-Layer Meteorology (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 18, 117–201 (1980).
[Crossref]

Geophys.Res. Lett. (1)

C. Cattrall, K. L. Carder, K. J. Thome, and H. R. Gordon, “Solar-reflectance-based calibration of spectral radiometers,” Geophys.Res. Lett. 29, 2.1–2.4 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE AES Systems Magazine (1)

R. J. Birk and T. B. McCord, “Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Systems,” IEEE AES Systems Magazine 9, 26–33 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11,639–611,652 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10,909–910,924 (1988).

Journal of Geophysical Research (1)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” Journal of Geophysical Research 93(C9), 10,749–710,768 (1988).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

E. Louchard, R. Reid, F. Stephens, C. Davis, R. Leathers, and T. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: A comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Remote Sensing of Environment (3)

J. C. Sandidge and R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sensing of Environment 65, 341–352 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. N. Slater, S. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar reflective range,” Remote Sensing of Environment 77, 293–303 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Müller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, “AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments,” Remote Sensing of Environment 44, 205–216 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

D. D. R. Kohler, “An evaluation of a derivative based hyperspectral bathymetric algorithm,” Dissertation Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, (2001).

C. M. Huang, B. E. Burke, B. B. Kosicki, R. W. Mountain, P. J. Daniels, D. C. Harrison, G. A. Lincoln, N. Usiak, M. A. Kaplan, and A. R. Forte.. “A new process for thinned, back-illuminated CCD imager devices,” presented at the International Symposium on VLSI Technology, New York, (1989).

G. M. Williams, H. H. Marsh, and M. Hinds, “Back-illuminated CCD imagers for high information content digital photography,” presented at the Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, San Jose, CA, (1998).

Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc., “The CCD Imaging Array: An Introduction to Scientific Imaging Charge-Coupled Devices,” Beaverton, Oregon, (1994).

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, M. Godin, D. Goebel, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, and J. Sherman, The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001 (NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Greenbelt, MD, 2002), Vol. NASA Technical Memorandum 2002-210006, p. 60.

A. Ryer, Light Measurement Handbook (International Light, Inc., Newburyport, MA, 1997), p. 64.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994), p. 592.

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery, A review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Imagery over Turbid Coastal Waters: A Practical Method,” Remote Sensing of Environment.74, no. 2 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. J. Montes, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” presented at the GeoSpatial Image and Data Exploration II, Orlando, FL, 2001.

B.-C. Gao and C. O. Davis, “Development of a line by line based atmosphere removal algorithm for airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers,” presented at the Imaging Spectrometry III, 1997.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A first order regression of the spectral position of element lamps and observed PHILLS 2 spectral pixel for spatial position 300.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The observed PHILLS 2 spectral position of a 0.6328 micrometer laser across the full spatial range of the CCD. Note that one spectral position is approximately 4.6 nanometers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A spectral smile map of the CCD illustrates the difference in nanometers between the spectral regression per spatial position and spectral regression at spatial position 280.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two first order regressions describing the relationship between the viewing angle and observed PHILLS 2 spatial pixel at spectral pixel 35 (557 nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PHILLS 2 observed dark corrected sand and deep water spectra overlaid on the radiometric bounds of the of the integrating sphere with (blue and green) and without (blue only) the use of filters.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The PHILLS 2 derived filter transmissions compared to independent filter transmission measurements for spatial pixel 280: prior to placement of zero order mask (a), after placement of zero order mask (b), and after stray light – frame transfer smear was addressed (c). Note: only three of the six filters employed in the study are displayed.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

First order regressions adequately describe the relationship between the sensor’s response and the physical reality for a variety of spectral and lamp intensities throughout the PHILLS 2’s spectral and spatial range.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

A true color RGB (or B and W) image collect by the PHILLS 2 on October 29th, 2002 of Looe Key, FL. The location of the deep and shallow water ground truth stations used in this study are marked.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

A comparison of the shallow (3.2m) water ground truth remote sensing reflectance and the corresponding results from both the PHILLS imagery run through the calibration with and without filters.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

A comparison of the deep (62.5m) water ground truth remote sensing reflectance and the corresponding results from both the PHILLS imagery run through the calibration with and without filters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The atmospheric parameters used in the TAFKAA model runs on the PHILLS II data sets

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T t = t i ( 1 r ) ( 1 r )
θ filter , λ = sin 1 [ n air sin ( θ air ) n filter , λ ]
r θ = N , λ = 1 2 [ ( sin ( θ air θ filter , λ ) sin ( θ air + θ filter , λ ) ) 2 + ( tan ( θ air θ filter , λ ) tan ( θ air + θ filter , λ ) ) 2 ]
r θ = N , λ = 1 2 [ ( sin ( θ filter , λ θ air ) sin ( θ filter , λ + θ air ) ) 2 + ( tan ( θ filter , λ θ air ) tan ( θ filter , λ + θ air ) ) 2 ]
r θ = 0 , λ = r θ = 0 , λ = [ n filter , λ 1 n filter , λ + 1 ] 2
log 10 ( t i , θ = 0 , λ ) log 10 ( t i , θ = N , λ ) = d θ = 0 , λ d θ = N , λ
d θ = 0 , λ d θ = N , λ = cos [ sin 1 ( sin ( θ air ) n air n filter , λ ) ]
T θ = N , λ = 10 ^ [ T θ = 0 , λ ( 1 r θ = 0 , λ ) ( 1 r θ = N , λ ) d θ = N , λ d θ = 0 , λ ] ( 1 r θ = N , λ ) ( 1 r θ = N , λ )
P T λ = d n filtered , λ d n unfiltered , λ
tdn 1 [ 1 ( p 12 + p 13 + ) ] + ( tdn 2 p 21 + tdn 3 p 31 + ) = mdn 1
mdn [ INV ( P ) ] = tdn
lamps filters λ abs [ mdn filtered INV ( P ) mdn unfiltered INV ( P ) tft ] 0

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