Abstract

We study the birefringence and polarization coupling in the index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with squeezed hexagonal crystal lattice. The sign of form birefringence in such photonic crystal fibers can be changed as the wavelength changes, which is reported for the first time to our knowledge. A PCF-based polarization splitter with squeezed hexagonal lattice is proposed to achieve excellent extinction ratio and a simpler structure than those reported previously.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).
  9. W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. P. Hansen, “Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1503–1509 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 9, 676–670 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-676
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. J. P. Van der Ziel, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60–62 (1975).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

2001 (4)

2000 (2)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yamauchi, G. Takahashi, and H. Nakano, “Full-vectorial beam-propagation method based on the McKee-Mitchell scheme with improved finite-difference formulas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2458–2464 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1975 (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60–62 (1975).
[Crossref]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bassi, P.

Belardi, W.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Bellanca, G.

Berger, V.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Coker, A.

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

Fogli, F.

Fujita, M.

Furusawa, K.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Hansen, K. P.

K. P. Hansen, “Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1503–1509 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Jacobsen, C.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Kawanishi, S.

Keiding, S. R.

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 609–613 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers: new ways to guide light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kubota, H.

Kumar, P.

Larsen, J. J.

Lee, J. H.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Monro, T. M.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakano, H.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Paulsen, H. N.

Petersson, A.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Petropoulos, P.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Reeves, W. H.

Richardson, D. J.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

Roberts, P. J.

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers: new ways to guide light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saccomandi, L.

Sharping, J. E.

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simonsen, H. R.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Skovgaard, P. M..W.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

Steel, M. J.

Suzuki, K.

Takahashi, G.

Tanaka, M.

Thøgersen, J.

Trillo, S.

Van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. Van der Ziel, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60–62 (1975).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

Yamauchi, J.

Yang, C.

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60–62 (1975).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588–590 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers: new ways to guide light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. H. Lee, and D. J. Richardson, “A highly nonlinear holey fiber and its application in a regenerative optical switch,” TuC3, Proc. OFC’2001, (2001).

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M..W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” OFC 02 post deadline paper FA9, (2002).

L. Zhang and C. Yang, “Polarization selective coupling in the holey fiber with asymmetric dual cores,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting 2003, (IEEE, October 26–30, Tucson, AZ, 2003), paper ThP 1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section of the PCF-PMF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Birefringence versus diameter of the air holes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Birefringence versus the lattice pitch in the x-axis direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Birefringence versus wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photonic crystal fiber polarization splitter with the squeezed crystal lattice.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized power transferring curves of the PCF-based polarization splitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Intensity distributions at the output of the polarization splitter.

Metrics