Abstract

We report on a novel chromatic confocal microscope system using supercontinuum white light generated from a photonic crystal fiber. The chromatic aberration of a pair of singlet lenses is employed to focus the different spectral components of the supercontinuum at different depth levels. An effective depth scanning range of 7 μm is demonstrated. The corresponding depth resolution is measured to be less than 1 μm (FWHM).

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic Press, London, 1990).
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  15. See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Seventh edition, 1999), Chap. 4 or E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, Fourth Edition, 2002), Chap. 5.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

G. Molesini, G. Pedrini, P. Poggi and F. Quercioli, �??Focus-wavelength encoded optical profilimeter,�?? Opt. Commun. 49, 229-233 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Scanning

M. A. Browne, O. Akinyemi, and A. Boyde, �??Confocal surface profiling utilizing chromatic aberration,�?? Scanning 14, 145-153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Maly and A. boyde, �??Real-time stereoscopic confocal reflection microscopy using objective lenses with linear longitudinal chromatic dispersion,�?? Scanning 16, 187-192 (1994).

Other

M. Minsky, �??microscopy apparatus,�?? U.S. Patent 3 013467 (19 Dec. 1962).

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic Press, London, 1990).

T. R. Corle and G.S. Kino, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic Press, London, 1996).

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Seventh edition, 1999), Chap. 4 or E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, Fourth Edition, 2002), Chap. 5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical spectrum of the supercontinuum white light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the light reflected from a mirror at different depth position (larger depth means further away from lens). Vertical axis is the depth position of the mirror. Horizontal axis is the un-calibrated wavelength measured by the pixel number on the CCD camera. Longer wavelength corresponds to larger pixel number. Each row of the image corresponds to a spectrum with the mirror position given by the vertical reading. Each column shows the depth response at the wavelength specified by the horizontal reading.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical depth response curves. Each curve corresponds to a column in Fig. 3. These curves show the dependence of the reflected light intensity on depth position at a given wavelength. The pixel number represents the un-calibrated wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mapping between wavelength (pixel number) and depth (mirror) position. It shows the corresponding depth position at which a specific wavelength focuses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of a field effect transistor at different depth position obtained by a single lateral scanning. Depth difference between (a) and (b) is 1.02 μm. And depth increases with a step of 0.26 μm from (b) to (f). (a) Initial position z=0 μm; (b) z=1.02 μm; (c) z=1.28 μm; (d) z=1.54 μm; (e) z=1.80 μm; (f) z=2.06 μm. In (a) the left side is on focus, while the right side portion is out-of-focus and therefore rejected by the pin-hole. The opposite is true in (d). From (b) to (f) we can see that the right part of the transistor first appears and then fades, which is consistent with the measured FWHM (about 0.75 μm) of the depth response curve.

Equations (3)

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F ( λ ) = 1 ( n ( λ ) 1 ) ( 1 R 1 1 R 2 ) ,
δF = δn ( n 1 ) F .
δz = δn ( n 1 ) ( F 1 + F 2 ) F 3 2 n oil F 2 2 ,

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