Abstract

We report on measurements in transmission of the speckle produced by scattering liquid media: diluted milk and water solutions of polystyrene-microspheres of different diameters. The speckle size is affected not only by scattering parameters such as the optical thickness, but also by the dimensions of the scatters. From the speckle measurement, we propose a method to differentiate media. Moreover, a calculation of the transmitted light profile by Monte Carlo simulation allowed us to get a better insight on the speckle size evolution versus scattering.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser speckle and related phenomena, Vol.9 in series Topics in Applied Physics, J.C. Dainty, Ed., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg New York Tokyo, 1984).
  2. J.H. Churnside and H.T. Yura, “Velocity measurement using laser speckle statistics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3539–3541 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D.A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Las. Tech. 23, 205–219 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. I.V. Fedosov and V.V. Tuchin, “The use of dynamic speckle field space time correlation function estimates for the direction and velocity determination of blood flow,” Proc. of SPIE 4434, 192–196 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D.A. Zimnyakov, J.D. Briers, and V.V. Tuchin, “Speckle technologies for monitoring and imaging of tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Chap.18 in Handbook of biomedical diagnostics,Valery V. Tuchin, Ed. (SPIE press, Bellingham2002).
  8. P. Lehmann, “Surface-roughness measurement based on the intensity correlation function of scattered light under speckle-pattern illumination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1144–1152 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Da Costa and J. Ferrari, “Anisotropic speckle patterns in the light scattered by rough cylindrical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5231–5237 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Berlasso, F. Perez Quintian, M.A. Rebollo, C.A. Raffo, and N.G. Gaggioli, “Study of speckle size of light scattered from cylindrical rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5811–5819 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Sadhwani, K.T. Schomaker, G.J. Tearney, and N.S. Nishioka, “Determination of Teflon thickness with laser speckle. I. Potential for burn depth diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5727–5735 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Giglio, M. Carpineti, A. Vailati, and D. Brogioli, “Near-field intensity correlation of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4036–4040 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. N.L. Swanson, B.D. Billard, and T.L. Gennaro, “Limits of optical transmission measurements with application to particle sizing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5887–5893 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. H.C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (New York, Dover, 1981).
  15. G. Yoon, S.A. Prahl, and A.J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Terri L. Alexander, James E. Harvey, and Arthur R. Weeks, “Average speckle size as a function of intensity threshold level: comparison of experimental measurements with theory,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8240–8250 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C.A. Thompson, K.J. Webb, and A.M. Weiner, “Imaging in scattering media by use of laser speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2269–2277 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

I.V. Fedosov and V.V. Tuchin, “The use of dynamic speckle field space time correlation function estimates for the direction and velocity determination of blood flow,” Proc. of SPIE 4434, 192–196 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Giglio, M. Carpineti, A. Vailati, and D. Brogioli, “Near-field intensity correlation of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4036–4040 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Las. Tech. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

Aizu, Y.

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Las. Tech. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alexander, Terri L.

Asakura, T.

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Las. Tech. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Berlasso, R.

Billard, B.D.

Boas, D.A.

Briers, J.D.

J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.A. Zimnyakov, J.D. Briers, and V.V. Tuchin, “Speckle technologies for monitoring and imaging of tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Chap.18 in Handbook of biomedical diagnostics,Valery V. Tuchin, Ed. (SPIE press, Bellingham2002).

Brogioli, D.

Carpineti, M.

Churnside, J.H.

Da Costa, G.

Dainty, J.C.

J.W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser speckle and related phenomena, Vol.9 in series Topics in Applied Physics, J.C. Dainty, Ed., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg New York Tokyo, 1984).

Fedosov, I.V.

I.V. Fedosov and V.V. Tuchin, “The use of dynamic speckle field space time correlation function estimates for the direction and velocity determination of blood flow,” Proc. of SPIE 4434, 192–196 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, J.

Gaggioli, N.G.

Gennaro, T.L.

Giglio, M.

Goodman, J.W.

J.W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser speckle and related phenomena, Vol.9 in series Topics in Applied Physics, J.C. Dainty, Ed., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg New York Tokyo, 1984).

Harvey, James E.

He, X.W.

J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehmann, P.

Nishioka, N.S.

Perez Quintian, F.

Prahl, S.A.

Raffo, C.A.

Rebollo, M.A.

Richards, G.

J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadhwani, A.

Schomaker, K.T.

Swanson, N.L.

Tearney, G.J.

Thompson, C.A.

Tuchin, V.V.

I.V. Fedosov and V.V. Tuchin, “The use of dynamic speckle field space time correlation function estimates for the direction and velocity determination of blood flow,” Proc. of SPIE 4434, 192–196 (2001).
[Crossref]

D.A. Zimnyakov, J.D. Briers, and V.V. Tuchin, “Speckle technologies for monitoring and imaging of tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Chap.18 in Handbook of biomedical diagnostics,Valery V. Tuchin, Ed. (SPIE press, Bellingham2002).

Vailati, A.

Van de Hulst, H.C.

H.C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (New York, Dover, 1981).

Webb, K.J.

Weeks, Arthur R.

Weiner, A.M.

Welch, A.J.

Yodh, A. G.

Yoon, G.

Yura, H.T.

Zimnyakov, D.A.

D.A. Zimnyakov, J.D. Briers, and V.V. Tuchin, “Speckle technologies for monitoring and imaging of tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Chap.18 in Handbook of biomedical diagnostics,Valery V. Tuchin, Ed. (SPIE press, Bellingham2002).

Appl. Opt. (9)

J.H. Churnside and H.T. Yura, “Velocity measurement using laser speckle statistics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3539–3541 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lehmann, “Surface-roughness measurement based on the intensity correlation function of scattered light under speckle-pattern illumination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1144–1152 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Da Costa and J. Ferrari, “Anisotropic speckle patterns in the light scattered by rough cylindrical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5231–5237 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Berlasso, F. Perez Quintian, M.A. Rebollo, C.A. Raffo, and N.G. Gaggioli, “Study of speckle size of light scattered from cylindrical rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5811–5819 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Sadhwani, K.T. Schomaker, G.J. Tearney, and N.S. Nishioka, “Determination of Teflon thickness with laser speckle. I. Potential for burn depth diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5727–5735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Giglio, M. Carpineti, A. Vailati, and D. Brogioli, “Near-field intensity correlation of scattered light,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4036–4040 (2001).
[Crossref]

N.L. Swanson, B.D. Billard, and T.L. Gennaro, “Limits of optical transmission measurements with application to particle sizing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5887–5893 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Yoon, S.A. Prahl, and A.J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terri L. Alexander, James E. Harvey, and Arthur R. Weeks, “Average speckle size as a function of intensity threshold level: comparison of experimental measurements with theory,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8240–8250 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, “Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164–175 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Las. Tech. (1)

Y. Aizu and T. Asakura, “Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow,” Opt. Las. Tech. 23, 205–219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Proc. of SPIE (1)

I.V. Fedosov and V.V. Tuchin, “The use of dynamic speckle field space time correlation function estimates for the direction and velocity determination of blood flow,” Proc. of SPIE 4434, 192–196 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

H.C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (New York, Dover, 1981).

D.A. Zimnyakov, J.D. Briers, and V.V. Tuchin, “Speckle technologies for monitoring and imaging of tissues and tissuelike phantoms,” Chap.18 in Handbook of biomedical diagnostics,Valery V. Tuchin, Ed. (SPIE press, Bellingham2002).

J.W. Goodman, “Statistical Properties of Laser Speckle Patterns,” in Laser speckle and related phenomena, Vol.9 in series Topics in Applied Physics, J.C. Dainty, Ed., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg New York Tokyo, 1984).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Speckle produced by a weak diffusing medium.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

cIm (x, 0) calculated from speckle of fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up (top view).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

dxm versus θ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

dym versus θ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

dym versus ls, the opticalthickness for semi-skimmed milk.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

dym versus ls, the optical thickness for skimmed milk.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

dc versus ls for skimmed milk.

Fig.9. .
Fig.9. .

dym versus ls and linear fit for different polystyrene-microspheres.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Contrast evolution versus ls for different polystyrene-microspheres.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

dc versus ls for the polystyrene-microspheres.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Scattering coefficients of polystyrene microspheres measured.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Anisotropy factor of polystyrene microspheres calculated.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameters obtained with the proposed method for polystyrene microspheres.

Equations (18)

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P ( r , q ) s = μ t P ( r , q ) + μ s 4 π 4 π P ( r , q ) β ( q , q ) d Ω
R I ( Δ x , Δ y ) = I ( x 1 , y 1 ) I ( x 2 , y 2 )
R I ( Δ x , Δ y ) = R I ( x , y )
c I ( x , y ) = R I ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) 2 I ( x , y ) 2 I ( x , y ) 2
R I ( x , y ) = FT 1 [ PSD I ( υ x , υ y ) ]
PSD I ( υ x , υ y ) = FT [ I ( x , y ) ] 2
c I m ( x , y ) = FT 1 [ FT [ I ( x , y ) ] 2 ] I ( x , y ) 2 I ( x , y ) 2 I ( x , y ) 2
R I ( x , y ) = I 2 [ 1 + μ A ( x , y ) 2 ]
μ A ( x , y ) 2 = P ( u , v ) exp [ i 2 π λ z ( ux + vy ) ] dudv P ( u , v ) dudv 2 = c I ( x , y )
{ X = x λ z Y = y λ z
c I ( x , y ) = F p ( X , Y ) 2 P ( u , v ) dudv 2
F p ( X , Y ) = P ( u , v ) exp [ i 2 π ( uX + vY ) ] dudv
c I c ( x ) = F p ( X ) 2 P ( u ) du 2
d y m ( θ = 5 ° ) d y m ( θ = 0 ° )
d y m = 30 l s + 219
d y m = 48 l s + 218
d c = 66 l s + 216
C = I 2 ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) 2 I ( x , y )

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