Abstract

The spectral features, i.e., wavelength and intensity, of fluorescence generated from semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) can be used for coding information. Unlike the 1-D and 2-D barcodes, the information carrier is applied to a very small area and hardly visible. The information retrieving by a fluorospectrometer is not subjected to the changes of rotation and scale. A de-convolution-based algorithm is used to separate the overlapped spectral profiles. This technology can be applied to small products labeling, document security and object identification.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2002 (3)

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479–2486 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. C. Chan, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy in fiber Bragg grating sensors by using digital signal processing,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 31, 299–307 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. E.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

C. C. Chan, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy in fiber Bragg grating sensors by using digital signal processing,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 31, 299–307 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. C. W.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479–2486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dabbousi, B. O.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Demokan, M. S.

C. C. Chan, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy in fiber Bragg grating sensors by using digital signal processing,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 31, 299–307 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grover, C. P.

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479–2486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heine, J. R.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jensen, K. F.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

C. C. Chan, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy in fiber Bragg grating sensors by using digital signal processing,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 31, 299–307 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mattoussi, H.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, D. J.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mikulec, F. V.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nie, S.

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ober, R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Su, J. Z.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sundar, V. C.

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, and K. F. Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Current Opinion in Biotechnol. (1)

W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnol. 13, 40–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 74, 532–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226–13239 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B,  101, 9463–9475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomoleclues,” Nature Biotechnol. 19, 631–635 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. & Laser Technol. (1)

C. C. Chan, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Enhancement of measurement accuracy in fiber Bragg grating sensors by using digital signal processing,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 31, 299–307 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479–2486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

http://www.oceanoptics.com

http://www.evidenttech.com

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Information contained in info-ink

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The information retrieving system

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescent spectrum of an info-ink

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of spectral lines extraction

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ) = i = 1 N k i · δ ( λ λ i ) P ( λ i ) ,
FT [f ( λ ) ] = i = 1 N k i · FT [ δ ( λ λ i ) ] · FT [p ( λ i ) ] ,
F (u ) = i = 1 N k i · D i · P i .
F ( u ) / P m = i = 1 m 1 k i · D i · P i / P m + k m · D m + i = m + 1 N k i · D i · P i / P m .
IFT [ F ( u ) / P m ] = IFT [ i = 1 m 1 k i D i P i / P m + i = m + 1 N k i D i P i / P m ] + k m · δ ( λ λ m )
IFT [ F ( u ) / P m ] = i = 1 N k i δ ( λ λ i )

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