Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally the technique of fabricating large diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in thick film on a concave lens surface (mirrors) with precise alignment by using the strategy of double exposure. We adopt the method of double exposure to overcome the difficulty of processing thick photoresist on a large curved substrate. A uniform thick film with arbitrary thickness on a concave lens can be obtained with this technique. We fabricate a large concentric circular grating with a 10-µm period on a concave lens surface in film with a thickness of 2.0 µm after development. It is believed that this technique can also be used to fabricate larger DOEs in thicker film on the concave or convex lens surface with precise alignment. There are other potential applications of this technique, such as fabrication of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and fabrication of microlens arrays on a large concave lens surface or convex lens surface with precise alignment.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).
  3. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. L. Vernold and T. D. Milster, “Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generated diffractive optical elements,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2263, 125–133 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10, 1043–1047 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-20-1043.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Lu and Z. Weng, “Lens centering by using binary phase grating,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE.4093, 176–180 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2840–2844 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Adams, A.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. S.

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brittain, S. T.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burge, J. H.

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Harada, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Jackman, R. J.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kita, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Li, F.

Lu, Z.

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10, 1043–1047 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-20-1043.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu and Z. Weng, “Lens centering by using binary phase grating,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE.4093, 176–180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. L. Vernold and T. D. Milster, “Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generated diffractive optical elements,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2263, 125–133 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, S.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Prentiss, M. G.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schutz, H.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vernold, C. L.

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. L. Vernold and T. D. Milster, “Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generated diffractive optical elements,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2263, 125–133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Weng, Z.

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10, 1043–1047 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-20-1043.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu and Z. Weng, “Lens centering by using binary phase grating,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE.4093, 176–180 (2000).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, G. M.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

Zhao, J.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2091–2098 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. L. Vernold and T. D. Milster, “Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generated diffractive optical elements,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, R. E. Fischer and W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2263, 125–133 (1994).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu and Z. Weng, “Lens centering by using binary phase grating,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, R. E. Fischer, R. B. Johnson, W. J. Smith, and W. H. Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE.4093, 176–180 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the setup for preexposure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of our laser direct writer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three-dimensional plot of the grating profile.

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