Abstract

We reveal stress fields induced by femtosecond laser irradiation by investigating the topography of surface relaxation of a cleavage of silica plates in which irradiation was performed, varying intensity, laser polarization and displacement of the writing beam. The stress field appears to depend on the writing parameters differently according to the laser intensity. For pulse intensity larger than 0.1 µJ, a first shear stress developed. Above 0.25 µJ, another shear stress appears that is dependent on the direction of writing and coupling with a phase matching condition between the pump wave and the third harmonic.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Hirao, K. & Miura, K. "Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 239, 91-95 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Hermann, P. R., Marjoribanks, R. S., Oetl, A. & Chen, K. in The European Material Conference posted by E-MRS 1999 Spring meeting. (ed. E-MRS) AX2 (E-MRS, Strasbourg, France, 1999).
  4. Streltsov, A. M. & Borelli, N. F. "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Yamada, K., Watanabe, W., Toma, et al. "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Sudrie, L., Franco, M., Prade, B. & Mysyrowicz, "A Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultrashort IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Miura, K., Qiu, J., Inouye, H., Mitsuyu, T. & Hirao, K. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Kawamura, K. I., Sarukura, N., Hirano, M. & Hosono, H. "Holographic encoding of fine-pitched micrograting structures in amorphous SiO2 thin films on silicon by a single femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038-1040 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Guillet de Chatellus, H. "Etude des non-linéarités d'ordre deux induites dans les verres et les fibres optiques. Modulation spatiale de ces non-linéarités à l'aide d'impulsions femtoseconde," N° 2535 (Bordeaux I University, 2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Poumellec, B., Guénot, P., Nadjo, L., Keita, B. & Nicolardot, M. "Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single-mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1257-1365 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Hidayat, A. et al. "Changes in refractive index of standard telecommunication fiber through exposure to femtosecond laser pulses at 810 nm," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling, Stresa, Italy, Ed. OSA, BThC24-1,3 (2001).
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  16. Sudrie, L., Franco, M., Prade, B. & Mysyrowicz, A. "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Miura, K., Qiu, J., Inouye, H., Mitsuyu, T. & Hirao, K. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K. I., Sarukura, N., Hirano, M. & Hosono, H. "Holographic encoding of fine-pitched micrograting structures in amorphous SiO2 thin films on silicon by a single femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1038-1040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. de Physique III

Poumellec, B. & Kherbouche, F. "The photorefractive Bragg gratings in the fibers for telecommunications," J. de Physique III 6, 1595-1624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Poumellec, B., Guénot, P., Nadjo, L., Keita, B. & Nicolardot, M. "Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single-mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1257-1365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Crystalline Sol.

Hirao, K. & Miura, K. "Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 239, 91-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Sudrie, L., Franco, M., Prade, B. & Mysyrowicz, "A Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultrashort IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L., Franco, M., Prade, B. & Mysyrowicz, A. "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Sudrie, L. et al. "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Hidayat, A. et al. "Changes in refractive index of standard telecommunication fiber through exposure to femtosecond laser pulses at 810 nm," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling, Stresa, Italy, Ed. OSA, BThC24-1,3 (2001).

Kazansky, P. in POWAG'2002 (ed. FORC, M.) (FORC, Moscow, St Petersburg, Russia, 2002).

Hermann, P. R., Marjoribanks, R. S., Oetl, A. & Chen, K. in The European Material Conference posted by E-MRS 1999 Spring meeting. (ed. E-MRS) AX2 (E-MRS, Strasbourg, France, 1999).

Guillet de Chatellus, H. "Etude des non-linéarités d'ordre deux induites dans les verres et les fibres optiques. Modulation spatiale de ces non-linéarités à l'aide d'impulsions femtoseconde," N° 2535 (Bordeaux I University, 2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig 1.
Fig 1.

configuration of the experiment on the left of the figure. Direction of clivage of the sample on the right.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Four lines from a set of 6 lines in sample S1 obtained with P=Pmax, polarization perpendicular to X , same sense of writing. The laser input is at the top of the figure. a - topography b - profile A and B. The objective was ×20, NA 0.50.

Fig. 3. (a)
Fig. 3. (a)

Topography of the same region as in Fig. 2 but on the second half of the sample (S2).

Fig. 3. (b)
Fig. 3. (b)

Comparaison of level profile in zone b of Figs. 2(a) and 3(a). For comparison purpose, the profile of the Fig. 3 has been inverted and shifted in position.

Fig. 3. (c)
Fig. 3. (c)

Comparaison of level profile in zone c of Figs. 2 and 3 between line 3 and 4. For comparison purpose the profile of the Fig. 3 has been inverted and shifted in position. No trace of densification can be detected.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Topography with an objective ×40. Polarization perpendicular to X . Details along the trace of the laser. Lines L5 and L6 were writing with the laser moving in opposite directions. P=Pmax.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Topography obtained from the SEM in secondary electron mode and with interferometer with an objective ×40. Polarization perpendicular to X . Details along the trace of the laser. P=0.88 Pmax.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Difference of the topography when the polarisation is rotated for lines written alternatively. P=P max. On the left, it is perpendicular to the laser displacement. On the right, it is parallel to the displacement. Observe the double spatial period at the entrance of the laser on the left whereas it is simple period on the right grating. The focusing point has been put further in the glass for the set on the left than on the right for clear tracking.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Topography below the second damage threshold, P=Pmax hrough an objective of ×2.5 instead of ×20 perpendicular polarisation, same sense of writing. (a) One face of the two halves of the cleaved sample. (b) The other half. (c) Comparison of level profile in the two halves of the same sample at zone c in Figs. 7(a) and (b). For comparison purpose the profile of the Fig. 7(b) has been inverted and shifted in position. The positions 0–30 µm are out of the filament corresponding to the reference level for calculation of the level change. From these profiles, we can deduce that one half of the sample exhibits a modulation 25 nm smaller than the other half. Several measurements performed gave an uncertainty of 5 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

3D view of Fig. 7(a) and (b). Note the strong level shift at the middle of the laser trace.

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