Abstract

The Precessions process has been developed for the control of texture (‘polishing’), preservation of form during polishing, and control of form (‘figuring’), on flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces. In this first and introductory paper, we summarize the need for aspherics, review some aspheric technologies, and then distill a ‘wish-list’ of attributes for an aspheric process. Within this context, we focus on special properties of Precessions tools, their use in a family of 7-axis CNC polishing machines, and present experimental results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.M. Martin, D.S. Andersen, J.R.P. Angel, R.H. Nagel, S.C. West, R.S. Young, �??Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8m f/1 mirror,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, ed. L.D. Barr, Proc. SPIE 1236, 682-690, (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  2. S-W Kim, D. Rees, D. Walker, R. Bingham, D. Brooks, B. Humm, H. Jamshidi, D-H Kim, H-S Yang, G. Nixon, �??An innovative computer controlled polishing machine,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 491-496 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Korhonen and T. Lappalainen �??Computer controlled figuring and testing,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, ed. L. Barr, Proc. SPIE 1236, 691-695 (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Geyl and J. Paseri, �??Optical Polishing of the VLT 8.2m primary mirrors �?? a report,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 476-479 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  5. R.A. Jones �??Fabrication of a large, thin, off-axis aspheric mirror,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 4067-4075 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  6. L.N. Allen �??Progress in ion figuring large optics,�?? eds. H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, M.J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 2428, 237-247 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  7. T.W. Drueding, S.C. Fawcett, S.R. Wilson, T.G. Bifano, �??Ion beam figuring of small optical components,�?? Opt. Eng. 34, 3565-3571 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Laguarta, N. Lupon, F. Vega, J. Armengol, �??Laser application for optical glass polishing,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 603-610 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  9. O.W. Fähnle, H.van Brug, H. Frankena, �??Fluid jet polishing of optical surfaces,�?? App. Opt. 37, 6771-6773 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  10. V.W. Kordonski, D. Golini, P. Dumas, S.J. Hogan, S.D. Jacobs, �??Magnetorheological-suspension-based finishing technology,�?? ed. J.M. Sater, Proc. SPIE 3326, 527-535 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  11. D.D. Walker, A.T. Beaucamp, R.G. Bingham, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, S.W. Kim, A.M. King, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, �??Precessions process for efficient production of aspheric optics for large telescopes and their instrumentation,�?? in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, eds. E. Atad-Ettedgui, S. D'Odorico, Proc. SPIE 4842, 73-84, 2002
  12. D. Walker, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, A.M. King, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, �??First aspheric form and texture results from a production machine embodying the Precessions process,�?? in Optical manufacturing and Testing IV, Proc. SPIE, 4451, 267-276, 2000

App. Opt. (1)

O.W. Fähnle, H.van Brug, H. Frankena, �??Fluid jet polishing of optical surfaces,�?? App. Opt. 37, 6771-6773 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R.A. Jones �??Fabrication of a large, thin, off-axis aspheric mirror,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 4067-4075 (1994)
[CrossRef]

T.W. Drueding, S.C. Fawcett, S.R. Wilson, T.G. Bifano, �??Ion beam figuring of small optical components,�?? Opt. Eng. 34, 3565-3571 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (9)

F. Laguarta, N. Lupon, F. Vega, J. Armengol, �??Laser application for optical glass polishing,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 603-610 (1996)
[CrossRef]

L.N. Allen �??Progress in ion figuring large optics,�?? eds. H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, M.J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 2428, 237-247 (1995)
[CrossRef]

H.M. Martin, D.S. Andersen, J.R.P. Angel, R.H. Nagel, S.C. West, R.S. Young, �??Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8m f/1 mirror,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, ed. L.D. Barr, Proc. SPIE 1236, 682-690, (1990)
[CrossRef]

S-W Kim, D. Rees, D. Walker, R. Bingham, D. Brooks, B. Humm, H. Jamshidi, D-H Kim, H-S Yang, G. Nixon, �??An innovative computer controlled polishing machine,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 491-496 (1996)
[CrossRef]

T. Korhonen and T. Lappalainen �??Computer controlled figuring and testing,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, ed. L. Barr, Proc. SPIE 1236, 691-695 (1990)
[CrossRef]

R. Geyl and J. Paseri, �??Optical Polishing of the VLT 8.2m primary mirrors �?? a report,�?? in Specification, Production and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, eds. A.E. Gee, J. Houee, Proc. SPIE 2775, 476-479 (1996)
[CrossRef]

V.W. Kordonski, D. Golini, P. Dumas, S.J. Hogan, S.D. Jacobs, �??Magnetorheological-suspension-based finishing technology,�?? ed. J.M. Sater, Proc. SPIE 3326, 527-535 (1998)
[CrossRef]

D.D. Walker, A.T. Beaucamp, R.G. Bingham, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, S.W. Kim, A.M. King, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, �??Precessions process for efficient production of aspheric optics for large telescopes and their instrumentation,�?? in Specialized Optical Developments in Astronomy, eds. E. Atad-Ettedgui, S. D'Odorico, Proc. SPIE 4842, 73-84, 2002

D. Walker, D. Brooks, R. Freeman, A.M. King, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, �??First aspheric form and texture results from a production machine embodying the Precessions process,�?? in Optical manufacturing and Testing IV, Proc. SPIE, 4451, 267-276, 2000

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured influence function (microns depth versus mm on the part) of a pole-down spinning tool

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Precessing bonnet

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Speed contours across four precessed polishing spots, shown spaced on the part

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Speed contours across four coalesced polishing spots

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Surface texture produced in the special case of polishing at only one precession position. The figure corresponds to a small sample of one of the circles in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Surface texture Ra=0.5 nm from four coalesced spots corresponding to the usual four precession positions i.e. a small sample of the four superimposed circles in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Removal depth versus tool-speed

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Removal volume versus tool-speed

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Family of experimental influence functions (depth in microns)

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