Abstract

We present the fabrication of a refractive microlens in hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass by electron beam lithography. The hybrid sol-gel material has high transmittance (greater than 95%) in the wavelength range from 362nm to 2000nm. Under the electron beam exposure, the polymerized film thickness was as large as 4 µm. A 3D microlens profile can be formed by exposure of the sol-gel film under different electron dosages that leads to different polymerized film thickness after development. As an example, a microlens with a 250 µm diameter and a 2.05 µm sag height was fabricated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, N.Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong, “Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid solgel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask,” Opt. Express 10, 303–308 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hamad S. Alhokai, “Fabrication of photoresist microlens arrays,” Microelectronics 1998. ICM ’98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. 49–52 (1998)
  4. Fu Yong-Qi, Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, and Ong Nan Shing, “Diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for monomode fiber coupling,” Opt. Express 7, 141–147 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Jens Neumann, Kay S. Wieking, and Detlef Kip, “Direct Laser Writing of Surface Reliefs in Dry, Self-Developing Photopolymer Films,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5418–5421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.X. Yu, X-C Yuan, N.Q. Ngo, W.X. Que, W.C. Cheong, and K. V. Koudriachov, “Single step fabrication of continuous micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 10, 443–448 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-10-443
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. C. Cheong, X-C. Yuan, V. Koudriachov, and W. X. Yu, “High sensitive SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of 3 dimensional continuous surface relief diffractive optical elements by electronbeam lithography,” Opt. Express 10, 586–590 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-586
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, W.C. Cheong, and N.Q. Ngo, “Improved linear response to UV exposure and its interpretation of SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel glass,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L81–L84 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2000 (2)

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu Yong-Qi, Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, and Ong Nan Shing, “Diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for monomode fiber coupling,” Opt. Express 7, 141–147 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jens Neumann, Kay S. Wieking, and Detlef Kip, “Direct Laser Writing of Surface Reliefs in Dry, Self-Developing Photopolymer Films,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5418–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alhokai, Hamad S.

Hamad S. Alhokai, “Fabrication of photoresist microlens arrays,” Microelectronics 1998. ICM ’98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. 49–52 (1998)

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, Ngoi Kok Ann

Chan, Y.C.

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Cheong, W.C.

Descour, M.R.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.J.

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kip, Detlef

Koudriachov, K. V.

Koudriachov, V.

Lam, Y.L.

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, Jens

Ngo, N.Q.

Nordman, N.

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Penner, R.S.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Que, W.X.

Rantala, J.T.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shing, Ong Nan

Vähäkangas, J.

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wieking, Kay S.

Yong-Qi, Fu

Yu, W. X.

Yu, W.X

X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, W.C. Cheong, and N.Q. Ngo, “Improved linear response to UV exposure and its interpretation of SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel glass,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L81–L84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, N.Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong, “Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid solgel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask,” Opt. Express 10, 303–308 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.X.

Yuan, X-C

Yuan, X-C.

Zhou, Y.

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, W.C. Cheong, and N.Q. Ngo, “Improved linear response to UV exposure and its interpretation of SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel glass,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L81–L84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, and Y.L. Lam, “Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,” Opt. Commun. 185, 19–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Thin Solid films (1)

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid films 352, 9–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Hamad S. Alhokai, “Fabrication of photoresist microlens arrays,” Microelectronics 1998. ICM ’98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. 49–52 (1998)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmittance spectra of the hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sol-gel Film thickness versus electron beam dosage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured surface profile of the microlens with a diameter of 250 µm and sag height of 2.05 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Beam intensity distribution in the far field through the fabricated microlens.

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