Abstract

We present the fabrication of a refractive microlens in hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass by electron beam lithography. The hybrid sol-gel material has high transmittance (greater than 95%) in the wavelength range from 362nm to 2000nm. Under the electron beam exposure, the polymerized film thickness was as large as 4 µm. A 3D microlens profile can be formed by exposure of the sol-gel film under different electron dosages that leads to different polymerized film thickness after development. As an example, a microlens with a 250 µm diameter and a 2.05 µm sag height was fabricated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. �?yräs, J.T.Rantala, R.Levy, M.R. Descour, S.Honkanen, N.Peyghambarian, �??Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,�?? Thin Solid films 352, 9-12 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, N.Q.Ngo and W. C. Cheong, �??Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid solgel glass with a high-energy beam�??sensitive gray-scale mask,�?? Opt. Express 10, 303-308 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Hamad S. Alhokai, �??Fabrication of photoresist microlens arrays,�?? Microelectronics 1998. ICM '98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. 49-52 (1998)
  4. Fu Yong-Qi, Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan and Ong Nan Shing, �??Diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for monomode fiber coupling,�?? Opt. Express 7, 141-147 (2000), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. .T.Rantala, N.Nordman, O.Nordman, J.Vähäkangas, S.Honkanen and N.Peyghambarian, �??Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, �??Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,�?? Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, Y.L. Lam, �??Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,�?? Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.X.Yu, X-C Yuan, N.Q.Ngo, W.X.Que, W.C.Cheong and K. V. Koudriachov, �??Single step fabrication of continuous micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,�?? Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-10-443">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-10-443</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. C. Cheong, X-C. Yuan, V. Koudriachov and W. X. Yu, �??High sensitive SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of 3 dimensional continuous surface relief diffractive optical elements by electronbeam lithography,�?? Opt. Express 10, 586-590 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-586">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-586</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, W.C. Cheong and N.Q. Ngo, �??Improved linear response to UV exposure and its interpretation of SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel glass,�?? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L81-L84 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

.T.Rantala, N.Nordman, O.Nordman, J.Vähäkangas, S.Honkanen and N.Peyghambarian, �??Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, W.C. Cheong and N.Q. Ngo, �??Improved linear response to UV exposure and its interpretation of SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel glass,�?? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, L81-L84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H.J. Jiang, X-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y.C. Chan, Y.L. Lam, �??Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography,�?? Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

W.X.Yu, X-C Yuan, N.Q.Ngo, W.X.Que, W.C.Cheong and K. V. Koudriachov, �??Single step fabrication of continuous micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,�?? Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-10-443">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-10-443</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Cheong, X-C. Yuan, V. Koudriachov and W. X. Yu, �??High sensitive SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of 3 dimensional continuous surface relief diffractive optical elements by electronbeam lithography,�?? Opt. Express 10, 586-590 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-586">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-586</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X-C Yuan, W.X Yu, N.Q.Ngo and W. C. Cheong, �??Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid solgel glass with a high-energy beam�??sensitive gray-scale mask,�?? Opt. Express 10, 303-308 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu Yong-Qi, Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan and Ong Nan Shing, �??Diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for monomode fiber coupling,�?? Opt. Express 7, 141-147 (2000), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-3-141</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

P. �?yräs, J.T.Rantala, R.Levy, M.R. Descour, S.Honkanen, N.Peyghambarian, �??Multilevel structures in solgel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,�?? Thin Solid films 352, 9-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.T. Rantala, R.S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, �??Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography,�?? Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Hamad S. Alhokai, �??Fabrication of photoresist microlens arrays,�?? Microelectronics 1998. ICM '98. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. 49-52 (1998)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmittance spectra of the hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sol-gel Film thickness versus electron beam dosage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured surface profile of the microlens with a diameter of 250 µm and sag height of 2.05 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Beam intensity distribution in the far field through the fabricated microlens.

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