Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method that can detect period fluctuations of periodic structures such as fiber Bragg gratings at an accuracy of approximately 0.5 ppm. These fluctuations can consist of chirp rates, phase shifts etc. The method can also be used to measure phase masks or work as a position control device with spatial resolution in the order of 10 nm. The technique is a modified side diffraction method with interference between two diffraction orders.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.20, Sept. 1, (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).
  3. P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. örjel, “Interferometric side diffraction technique for the charcterisation of fibre gratings,” Conference Proceedings: Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and poling in glass waveguides, OSA Technical digest, pp 230 FF3-1, Optical Soc. of America, Washington DC, (1999).
  4. I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Perrone, M. Laurenzano, and I. Montrosset, “Design and Feasibility Analysis of an Innovative Integrated Grating-Assisted Add-Drop Multiplexer,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.19, Dec., (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).
  7. M. Alonso and E. Finn, “Fundamental university physics, Fields and waves,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, second edition, pp. 511, (1983).

2002 (1)

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M.

M. Alonso and E. Finn, “Fundamental university physics, Fields and waves,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, second edition, pp. 511, (1983).

Åslund, M.

M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).

Baskin, L.

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

Canning, J.

M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).

de Sterke, C.M.

M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).

Eggleton, B.

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

Finn, E.

M. Alonso and E. Finn, “Fundamental university physics, Fields and waves,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, second edition, pp. 511, (1983).

Fonjallaz, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. örjel, “Interferometric side diffraction technique for the charcterisation of fibre gratings,” Conference Proceedings: Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and poling in glass waveguides, OSA Technical digest, pp 230 FF3-1, Optical Soc. of America, Washington DC, (1999).

Friberg, A. T.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helmfrid, S.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.20, Sept. 1, (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurenzano, M.

G. Perrone, M. Laurenzano, and I. Montrosset, “Design and Feasibility Analysis of an Innovative Integrated Grating-Assisted Add-Drop Multiplexer,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.19, Dec., (2001).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

G. Perrone, M. Laurenzano, and I. Montrosset, “Design and Feasibility Analysis of an Innovative Integrated Grating-Assisted Add-Drop Multiplexer,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.19, Dec., (2001).
[CrossRef]

örjel, P.

P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. örjel, “Interferometric side diffraction technique for the charcterisation of fibre gratings,” Conference Proceedings: Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and poling in glass waveguides, OSA Technical digest, pp 230 FF3-1, Optical Soc. of America, Washington DC, (1999).

Perrone, G.

G. Perrone, M. Laurenzano, and I. Montrosset, “Design and Feasibility Analysis of an Innovative Integrated Grating-Assisted Add-Drop Multiplexer,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.19, Dec., (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, I.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).

Reyes, P.

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

Stolte, R.

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.20, Sept. 1, (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

Ulrich, R.

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.20, Sept. 1, (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, P

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

Optics Commun. (1)

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, and A. T. Friberg, “Limitations of the interferometric side diffraction technique for fibre Bragg grating characterization,” Optics Commun. 201, 301–308, Jan. 15, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. Perrone, M. Laurenzano, and I. Montrosset, “Design and Feasibility Analysis of an Innovative Integrated Grating-Assisted Add-Drop Multiplexer,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.19, Dec., (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Åslund, L. Poladian, J. Canning, and C.M. de Sterke, “Mode inverting grating coupler: experimental results,” Submitted to Appl. Opt. LPEO, Jan. (2003).

M. Alonso and E. Finn, “Fundamental university physics, Fields and waves,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, second edition, pp. 511, (1983).

P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.20, Sept. 1, (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Baskin, M. Sumetsky, P Westbrook, P. Reyes, and B. Eggleton,“Side-diffraction technique for highly accurate characterization of fiber Bragg grating index modulation,” Conference Proceedings: Optical Fiber Conference, OSA, 1, Wed. pp383, (OFC2003).

P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. örjel, “Interferometric side diffraction technique for the charcterisation of fibre gratings,” Conference Proceedings: Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and poling in glass waveguides, OSA Technical digest, pp 230 FF3-1, Optical Soc. of America, Washington DC, (1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Dual grating side-diffraction experiment setup. (b) Close-up of core region. Focused incoming probe beam (HeNe 632.8 nm) is first-order diffracted on two Bragg gratings in D-fibres. Solid line represent the extent of the probe beam, the short dashed line the diffracted light from the top fiber and the long dashed line the diffracted light from the bottom fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reproduction of coupler cross-cuts with corresponding side-diffraction interference pattern. (a) in-line and close cores, (b) transversely shifted and close cores and (c) in-line and slightly separated cores.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Diffraction interferometer for grating, or phasemask, comparison purposes. (b) Device for precision control of position. Inset: side-view with probe beam as thick line and diffracted light as thin line.

Equations (2)

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d D λ a 2 .
Res = Λ grat 50 L g

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