Abstract

We report on the development and use of a highly anisotropic magnetic metamaterial for near-field imaging. The material consists of an array of Swiss Roll structures, resonant near 21.3 MHz, with a peak value of relative permeability ~35. At this peak, the material transfers an input magnetic field pattern to the output face without loss of intensity and with a spatial resolution equal to the roll diameter. It behaves as a near-field imaging device consisting of a bundle of magnetic wires.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry “Negative Refraction makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 – 3969 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, and J. B. Pendry, “Imaging Device,” GB Patent Application No 0127514.8 (2001)
  3. S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)
  4. E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999) Chap.15.5
  6. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  7. M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. C. K. Wiltshire and T. C. Steele, “Tunable Materials,” GB Patent Application No 0124088.6 (2001)
  9. E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry “Negative Refraction makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 – 3969 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999) Chap.15.5

Gilderdale, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajnal, J. V.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

Kalinin, V. A.

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

Larkman, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry “Negative Refraction makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 – 3969 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, and J. B. Pendry, “Imaging Device,” GB Patent Application No 0127514.8 (2001)

S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)

Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)

Ringhofer, K. H.

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

Shamonina, E.

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

Solymar, L.

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

Steele, T. C.

M. C. K. Wiltshire and T. C. Steele, “Tunable Materials,” GB Patent Application No 0124088.6 (2001)

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, and J. B. Pendry, “Imaging Device,” GB Patent Application No 0127514.8 (2001)

S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, and J. B. Pendry, “Imaging Device,” GB Patent Application No 0127514.8 (2001)

M. C. K. Wiltshire and T. C. Steele, “Tunable Materials,” GB Patent Application No 0124088.6 (2001)

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999) Chap.15.5

Young, I. R.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electr. Lett. (1)

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electr. Lett. 37, 1243 – 1244 (2001)
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Magneto-inductive waves in one, two and three dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6252–6261 (2002)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry “Negative Refraction makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 – 3969 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal “Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Science 291, 849 – 851 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. C. K. Wiltshire and T. C. Steele, “Tunable Materials,” GB Patent Application No 0124088.6 (2001)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, W. J. Stewart, and J. B. Pendry, “Imaging Device,” GB Patent Application No 0127514.8 (2001)

S. Anantha Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the Near field,” J. Mod. Opt. in press (2003)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999) Chap.15.5

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of a single Swiss roll: the Espanex is wound in a spiral on a cylindrical mandrel. (b) Permeability vs. frequency for Swiss Roll material. (c) The assembled slab of material, consisting of 271 Swiss Rolls, tuned to 21.5 MHz

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface scans at two frequencies, below resonance and on resonance. The source is a 3 mm diameter loop, 5 mm from the rear surface, on the centre line. Red lines: scanning across the surface of the material along a diagonal at a height of 68 mm. Black lines: scanning at a height of 68 mm with no material. Blue lines: scanning at a height of 8 mm with no material. The extent of the central roll is indicated by the dashed green lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The M-shaped antenna, constructed from two antiparallel wires held 1 mm apart. (b) The slab of Swiss Rolls placed on the antenna, and the scanning loop help above it.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The field pattern observed at 21.3 MHz in a plane approximately 2 mm above the surface of the material slab. The Swiss Roll structure is overlaid.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ z ( ω ) = 1 F ( 1 ω 0 2 ω 2 ) + i Γ ω , μ x = μ y = 1
i k × E = i ω μ μ 0 H , i k × H = i ω ε ε 0 E
k × k × H = ω 2 c 0 2 μ H or k ( k · H ) + k 2 H = k 0 2 μ H
[ μ x 1 k z 2 μ z 1 k x k z μ x 1 k x k z μ z 1 k x 2 ] [ B x B z ] = k 0 2 [ B x B z ]
k z 2 = μ x k 0 2 μ x μ z k x 2
[ B x B z ] = [ μ z 1 k x 2 k 0 2 μ x 1 k x k z ]
[ B x B z ] = [ k 0 ± k x ]
μ z ( ω res ) = i β 2
k z 2 i k x 2 β 2
Δ 1 k x ( max ) d β

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