Abstract

The damage caused by cleaving holey fibers is investigated as a function of cleaving force. Comparisons are made with standard optical fibers and holey fibers. Optimum cleaving forces are determined for a number of holey fiber air fractions and fiber diameters. A simple technique for removing cleave damage is also presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin, “All-silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St. J Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P.J. Bennett, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Toward practical holey fiber technology: fabrication, plicing, modeling, and characterization,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1203–1205 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W.J. Wadsworth, R.M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–52 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-1-48
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. S.T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B.C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L.W. Cahill, and J.D. Love, “Retaining and characterizing nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 98–104 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  11. S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. S.L. Semjonov and C.R. Kurkjian, “Strength of silica fibers with micron size flaws,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 283, 220–224 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. C.P. Chen and T.H. Chang, “Fracture mechanics evaluation of optical fibers,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 77, 110–116 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. C.D. Rabii and J.A. Harrington, “Mechanical properties of hollow glass waveguides,” Opt.Eng. 38, 1490–1499 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

C.P. Chen and T.H. Chang, “Fracture mechanics evaluation of optical fibers,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 77, 110–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

S.L. Semjonov and C.R. Kurkjian, “Strength of silica fibers with micron size flaws,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 283, 220–224 (2001).
[Crossref]

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St. J Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Atkin, D.M.

Baggett, J.C.

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bazylenko, M.

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

Belardi, W.

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bennett, P.J.

Birks, T.A.

Bouwmans, G.

Brocklesby, W.S.

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N.G.R.

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St. J Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahill, L.W.

Canning, J.

Chang, T.H.

C.P. Chen and T.H. Chang, “Fracture mechanics evaluation of optical fibers,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 77, 110–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.P.

C.P. Chen and T.H. Chang, “Fracture mechanics evaluation of optical fibers,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 77, 110–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.J.

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furusawa, K.

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gibson, B.C.

Guenot, Ph.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hale, A.

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrington, J.A.

C.D. Rabii and J.A. Harrington, “Mechanical properties of hollow glass waveguides,” Opt.Eng. 38, 1490–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hillman, C.W.J.

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huntington, S.T.

S.T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B.C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L.W. Cahill, and J.D. Love, “Retaining and characterizing nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 98–104 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inniss, D.

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Katsifolis, J.

Keita, B.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kerbage, C.

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

Kurkjian, C.R.

S.L. Semjonov and C.R. Kurkjian, “Strength of silica fibers with micron size flaws,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 283, 220–224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Love, J.D.

Lyytikainen, K.

Monro, T.M.

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

P.J. Bennett, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Toward practical holey fiber technology: fabrication, plicing, modeling, and characterization,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1203–1205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nadjo, R.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nicolardot, M.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K.A.

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

Percival, R.M.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rabii, C.D.

C.D. Rabii and J.A. Harrington, “Mechanical properties of hollow glass waveguides,” Opt.Eng. 38, 1490–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.J.

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

P.J. Bennett, T.M. Monro, and D.J. Richardson, “Toward practical holey fiber technology: fabrication, plicing, modeling, and characterization,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1203–1205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.St. J

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St. J Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.St.J.

Semjonov, S.L.

S.L. Semjonov and C.R. Kurkjian, “Strength of silica fibers with micron size flaws,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 283, 220–224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W.J.

Westbrook, P.S.

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R.S.

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zagari, J.

Zhong, Q.

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

Elec.Lett. (1)

C.W.J. Hillman, W.S. Brocklesby, T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, and D.J. Richardson, “Structural and optical characterisation of holey fibers using scanning probe microscopy,” Elec.Lett. 37, 1283–1284 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730–2734 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, “Characterization of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1517–1523 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

S.L. Semjonov and C.R. Kurkjian, “Strength of silica fibers with micron size flaws,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 283, 220–224 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mat. Chem. and Phys. (1)

C.P. Chen and T.H. Chang, “Fracture mechanics evaluation of optical fibers,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 77, 110–116 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T.M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J.C. Baggett, N.G.R. Broderick, and D.J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt.Eng. (1)

C.D. Rabii and J.A. Harrington, “Mechanical properties of hollow glass waveguides,” Opt.Eng. 38, 1490–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt.Express (1)

B.J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt.Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St. J Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Poumellec, Ph. Guenot, R. Nadjo, B. Keita, and M. Nicolardot, “Information obtained from the surface profile of a cut single mode fiber,” J.Lightwave Technol.17 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

3D representation of an AFM scan (70µm×70µm) of holey fiber ASM001_A2 after cleaving under 220g of force.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM image of a holey fiber with the interstitial holes partly open clearly showing that the damage line direction is independent of the capillary stacking (left). AFM image of the central 16µm of a cleaved holey fiber showing asymmetry in damage location (right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of damage versus force for three cleaved fibers as measured using the AFM

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AFM images of the ASM001_A2 fiber cleaved with 220g of force (left image) and 110g of force (right image). Both scans are 70 microns in diameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of AFM images of a cleaved holey fiber (left) and the same fiber after etching for 2 seconds in 48%HF (right). Both scans are 50 microns in diameter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical fiber types and parameters

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