Abstract

We present the fabrication of 3D adiabatically tapered structures, for efficient coupling from an optical fiber, or free-space, to a chip. These structures are fabricated integrally with optical waveguides in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Fabrication involves writing a single grayscale mask in HEBS glass with a high-energy electron beam, ultra-violet grayscale lithography, and inductively coupled plasma etching. We also present the experimentally determined coupling efficiencies of the fabricated tapers using end-fire coupling. The design parameters of the tapered structures are based on electromagnetic simulations and are discussed in this paper.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tamir: Integrated Optics, 2nd Topics Appl. Phys. 7 (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1979) Chap.1.
  2. www.corning.com
  3. Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).
  4. R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 1995).
  5. H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28, 582–584 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Brenner and H. Melchior, “Integrated Optical Modeshape Adapters in InGaAsP/InP for efficient Fiber-to-Waveguide Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.
  10. B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Ingrid Moerman, Peter P. VanDaele, and P. M. Demeester, “A Review on Fabrication Technologies for the Monolithic Integration of Tapers with III-V Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. S. Fan and B. Hooker, “Tapered Polymer Single-Mode Waveguides for Mode Transformation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466–474 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. www.confluentphotonics.com/technology/technical_papers.php#fabrication
  14. J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.
  15. D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. R. Hadley, “Design of tapered waveguides for improved output coupling,” “IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 892–894 (1993).
  17. Dominic F G Gallagher and T. P. Felici, “Eigen Mode Expansion_ A Powerful Computational Method for the Rigorous Solution of Optical Propagation Problems,” in Business Briefing: Global Optical Communications, 1–6 (2002).
  18. C. Wu, “High Energy Beam Sensitive Glasses,” February 1994. U.S. Patent 5,285,517.
  19. Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” (To be published).
  20. Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Process development and application of grayscale lithography for efficient three-dimensionally profiled fiber-to-waveguide couplers,” Proceedings of SPIE, 5183 (2003).
  21. Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Ingrid Moerman, Peter P. VanDaele, and P. M. Demeester, “A Review on Fabrication Technologies for the Monolithic Integration of Tapers with III-V Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, “Integrated Optical Modeshape Adapters in InGaAsP/InP for efficient Fiber-to-Waveguide Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, “Design of tapered waveguides for improved output coupling,” “IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 892–894 (1993).

1992 (2)

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28, 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. S. Fan and B. Hooker, “Tapered Polymer Single-Mode Waveguides for Mode Transformation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466–474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, T.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, “Integrated Optical Modeshape Adapters in InGaAsP/InP for efficient Fiber-to-Waveguide Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, CH.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

Ingrid Moerman, Peter P. VanDaele, and P. M. Demeester, “A Review on Fabrication Technologies for the Monolithic Integration of Tapers with III-V Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, Thomas

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” (To be published).

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Process development and application of grayscale lithography for efficient three-dimensionally profiled fiber-to-waveguide couplers,” Proceedings of SPIE, 5183 (2003).

Edwards, C. A.

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28, 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Faltin, K.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, R. S.

R. S. Fan and B. Hooker, “Tapered Polymer Single-Mode Waveguides for Mode Transformation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466–474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Felici, T. P.

Dominic F G Gallagher and T. P. Felici, “Eigen Mode Expansion_ A Powerful Computational Method for the Rigorous Solution of Optical Propagation Problems,” in Business Briefing: Global Optical Communications, 1–6 (2002).

Fijol, J.J.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Fike, E.E.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Frish, M.B.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Gallagher, Dominic F G

Dominic F G Gallagher and T. P. Felici, “Eigen Mode Expansion_ A Powerful Computational Method for the Rigorous Solution of Optical Propagation Problems,” in Business Briefing: Global Optical Communications, 1–6 (2002).

Gao, Xiang

Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilbody, D.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Gimkiewicz, C.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, “Design of tapered waveguides for improved output coupling,” “IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 892–894 (1993).

Hagedorn, D.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, B.

R. S. Fan and B. Hooker, “Tapered Polymer Single-Mode Waveguides for Mode Transformation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466–474 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R.

R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

Hunziker, W.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, S.A.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Jahns, J.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keating, P.B.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Kessler, W.J.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

Kley, E. B.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T.L.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, J.

J.J. Fijol, E.E. Fike, P.B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. LeBlanc, S.A. Jacobson, W.J. Kessler, and M.B. Frish, “Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices,” presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, California, USA, 25–31Jan. 2003.

LeCompte, Marion

Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Zhaolin

Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).

Melchior, H.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, “Integrated Optical Modeshape Adapters in InGaAsP/InP for efficient Fiber-to-Waveguide Coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1053–1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B.I.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, Ingrid

Ingrid Moerman, Peter P. VanDaele, and P. M. Demeester, “A Review on Fabrication Technologies for the Monolithic Integration of Tapers with III-V Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Murakowski, J.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, Janusz

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Process development and application of grayscale lithography for efficient three-dimensionally profiled fiber-to-waveguide couplers,” Proceedings of SPIE, 5183 (2003).

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” (To be published).

Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).

Prather, D. W.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prather, Dennis W.

Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” (To be published).

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Process development and application of grayscale lithography for efficient three-dimensionally profiled fiber-to-waveguide couplers,” Proceedings of SPIE, 5183 (2003).

Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28, 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pustai, D.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pustai, David

Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).

Raybon, G.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seeberger, D.

G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Sharkawy, A.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, “Vertical InP/InGasAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2040–2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, L.

G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Sure, Anita

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Process development and application of grayscale lithography for efficient three-dimensionally profiled fiber-to-waveguide couplers,” Proceedings of SPIE, 5183 (2003).

Thomas Dillon, Anita Sure, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Continuous-tone grayscale mask fabrication using high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” (To be published).

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir: Integrated Optics, 2nd Topics Appl. Phys. 7 (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1979) Chap.1.

Thoma, F.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, “Fabrication of micro prisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Op. 38, 2986–2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

VanDaele, Peter P.

Ingrid Moerman, Peter P. VanDaele, and P. M. Demeester, “A Review on Fabrication Technologies for the Monolithic Integration of Tapers with III-V Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, S.

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, CH. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.1601–1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weiershausen, W.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wender, G.

G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

westermeier, H.

G. Muller, G. Wender, L. Stoll, H. westermeier, and D. Seeberger, “Fabrication techniques for vertically tapered InP/InGasAsP spot-size transformers with very low loss,” presented at Proc. Eur. conf.Integrated Optics, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Wu, C.

C. Wu, “High Energy Beam Sensitive Glasses,” February 1994. U.S. Patent 5,285,517.

Yao, Peng

Zhaolin Lu, Peng Yao, David Pustai, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather, “Silicon-Prism Coupling into 260nm-SOI Slab Waveguides,” Opt. Lett. (Accepted).

Young, M.G.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T.L. Koch, B.I. Miller, M.G. Young, M. Chien, and G. Raybon, “Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 418–420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, “Verticaly tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique,” Electron. Lett. 31, 794–796, (1995).
[CrossRef]

“IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. R. Hadley, “Design of tapered waveguides for improved output coupling,” “IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 892–894 (1993).

App. Opt. (1)

Marion LeCompte, Xiang Gao, and Dennis W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” App. Opt. 40, 5291–5927 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Op. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Grayscale device fabrication steps.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design of the test structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of the efficiency versus taper length (calculated using BPM).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Design and fabrication of a grayscale HEBS glass mask. A. Schematic representation of the mask exposure; the mask material darkens in response to energetic beam. B. Calibration of the mask response in net optical density as a function of exposure dose. From these curves, required dose is backed out to achieve desired glass darkening for tapers. C. Optical density map of the tapered couplers. D. Cross section of taper highlighted in C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM viewgraph of the tapered couplers realized in photoresist.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM viewgraph of the Tapered couplers etched into silicon.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental setup used to characterize the couplers.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Mode profile observed at the output facet of the symmetric couplers. The height of the central waveguide, in microns, is indicated near the images. The appearance of the circular mode for the 2 and 0.5µm waveguide implies that the coupler is maintaining the single mode behavior. However, for the 0.25µm waveguide, higher order modes also exist. The mode profile of the straight waveguide is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental coupling efficiency of the symmetric couplers calculated with respect to a concurrently fabricated straight waveguide.

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