Abstract

We have continuously imaged the controlled motion of a single atom as well as of a small number of distinguishable atoms with observation times exceeding one minute. The Cesium atoms are confined to potential wells of a standing wave optical dipole trap which allows to transport them over macroscopic distances. The atoms are imaged by an intensified CCD camera, and spatial resolution near the diffraction limit is obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Alt, “An objective lens for efficient fluoresence detection of single atoms,” Optik 113, 3 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping,” (Springer Verlag, 1999).
  10. D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

W. Alt, “An objective lens for efficient fluoresence detection of single atoms,” Optik 113, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alt, W.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Alt, “An objective lens for efficient fluoresence detection of single atoms,” Optik 113, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, R.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dotsenko, I.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eschner, J.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Frese, D.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomer, V.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haubrich, D.

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Khudaverdyan, M.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhr, S.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leibfried, D.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping,” (Springer Verlag, 1999).

Miroshnychenko, Y.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nägerl, H. C.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Protsenko, I.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reymond, G.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, W.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadwinkel, H.

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlosser, N.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid-Kaler, F.

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Schrader, D.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strauch, F.

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ueberholz, B.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Straten, P.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping,” (Springer Verlag, 1999).

Wynands, R.

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “An optical conveyor belt for single atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 819 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

D. Haubrich, H. Schadwinkel, F. Strauch, B. Ueberholz, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Observation of individual neutral atoms in magnetic and magneto-optical traps,” Europhys. Lett. 34, 663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optics Express (1)

H. C. Nägerl, D. Leibfried, F. Schmid-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Coherent excitation of normal modes in a string of Ca+ ions,” Optics Express 3, 89 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-2-89
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

W. Alt, “An objective lens for efficient fluoresence detection of single atoms,” Optik 113, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, “Localized vizible Ba+ mono-ion oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap: Towards a Deterministic Source of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Deterministic Delivery of a Single Atom,” Science 293, 278 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping,” (Springer Verlag, 1999).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (89 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (316 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the experimental setup. The fluorescence light from the MOT is collimated and divided into two parts by the beam splitter. One part is sent onto the APD, while the other part is imaged onto the intensified CCD camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) CCD image of one atom stored in the MOT (exposure time 1s). The counts are binned in the vertical and horizontal directions and fitted with Gaussians to determine the size and the absolute position of the trap. b) One atom in a potential well of the DT illuminated by an optical molasses (Exposure time 0.5s).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(89 KB) Controlled transport of one neutral atom over a distance of 60µm during some tens of seconds.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(316 KB) Transport of three neutral atoms.

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