Abstract

We demonstrate that chromatic dispersion induced pulse-width broadening can be effectively monitored by a simple average power measurement of the filtered output from a parametric amplifier when additional four-wave mixing interactions are introduced. This all-optical technique also provides all-optical frequency conversion of the signal being monitored and signal gain.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B.J. Eggleton, et al, “Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1418–1432 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Panet al., “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2001), WH5
  5. S. Wielandyet al., “Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation,” Electon. Lett. 38, 1198–1199 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Blows and S. French, “Low noise figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27, 491–493 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  7. R. McKerracher, J. Blows, and M.C. deSterke, “Wavelength conversion bandwidth in fibre based optical parametric amplifiers” Opt. Express 11, 1002–1007 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-9-1002.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 338–340 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Blows, “Crosstalk in a fibre parametric wavelength converter,” Trends in Optics and Photonics. 86, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2003), pp 565
  11. J.H. Hansryd and P.A. Andrekson, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. 8, 506–520 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  12. K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, and A.R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, (1997) Academic Press (San Diego)
  14. G.P. Agrawal “Wave propagation in Optical Fibers,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)
  15. J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Technique for multiplying the repetition rate of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1672–1674 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Longhiet al., “50-GHz pulse-train generation at 1.5 mm with a chirped fiber grating as a frequency multiplier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1481–1483 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Temportal self-imaging effects: Theory and Application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001)
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (5)

J. Blows and S. French, “Low noise figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27, 491–493 (2002)
[Crossref]

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

S. Wielandyet al., “Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation,” Electon. Lett. 38, 1198–1199 (2002)
[Crossref]

J.H. Hansryd and P.A. Andrekson, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. 8, 506–520 (2002)
[Crossref]

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Temportal self-imaging effects: Theory and Application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001)
[Crossref]

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
[Crossref]

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 338–340 (2001)
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

Agrawal, G.P.

G.P. Agrawal “Wave propagation in Optical Fibers,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)

Andrekson, P.A.

J.H. Hansryd and P.A. Andrekson, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. 8, 506–520 (2002)
[Crossref]

Azana, J.

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Temportal self-imaging effects: Theory and Application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Technique for multiplying the repetition rate of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1672–1674 (1999)
[Crossref]

Blows, J.

Chraplyvy, A.R.

F. Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, and A.R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, (1997) Academic Press (San Diego)

Ciaramella, E.

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
[Crossref]

Curti, F.

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
[Crossref]

deSterke, M.C.

Eggleton, B.J.

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

B.J. Eggleton, et al, “Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1418–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Endo, Y.

H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
[Crossref]

Forghieri, F.

F. Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, and A.R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, (1997) Academic Press (San Diego)

French, S.

Hansryd, J.H.

J.H. Hansryd and P.A. Andrekson, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. 8, 506–520 (2002)
[Crossref]

Her, T.H.

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

Hunsche, S.

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 338–340 (2001)
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
[Crossref]

Kazovsky, L.G.

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

Longhi, S.

Mahic, M.E.

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

McKerracher, R.

Muriel, M.A.

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Temportal self-imaging effects: Theory and Application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Technique for multiplying the repetition rate of periodic trains of pulses by means of a temporal self-imaging effect in chirped fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1672–1674 (1999)
[Crossref]

Nogiwa, S.

H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
[Crossref]

Ohita, H.

H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Z. Panet al., “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2001), WH5

Raybon, G.

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

Tkach, R.W.

F. Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, and A.R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, (1997) Academic Press (San Diego)

Trillo, S.

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
[Crossref]

Uesaka, K.

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

Westbrook, P.S.

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

Wielandy, S.

S. Wielandyet al., “Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation,” Electon. Lett. 38, 1198–1199 (2002)
[Crossref]

Wong, K.K.Y.

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

Electon. Lett. (1)

S. Wielandyet al., “Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation,” Electon. Lett. 38, 1198–1199 (2002)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett (1)

H. Ohita, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, and Y. Endo, “Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain-switched optical pulses,” Electron. Lett 36, 737 (2000)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Azana and M.A. Muriel, “Temportal self-imaging effects: Theory and Application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 728–744 (2001)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. (1)

J.H. Hansryd and P.A. Andrekson, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quat. Electon. 8, 506–520 (2002)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (2)

K.K.Y. Wong, M.E. Mahic, K. Uesaka, and L.G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7, 911–913 (2002)
[Crossref]

P.S. Westbrook, B.J. Eggleton, G. Raybon, S. Hunsche, and T.H. Her, “Measurement of Residual Chromatic dispersion of a 40-Gb/s RZ Signal via Spectral Broadening,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 346–348 (2002)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, “Suppression of level fluctuation without extinction ratio degradation based on output saturation in higher order optical parametric interaction in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 338–340 (2001)
[Crossref]

IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical reshaping by means of Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Phton. Technol. Lett. 13, 142–144 (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

J. Blows, “Crosstalk in a fibre parametric wavelength converter,” Trends in Optics and Photonics. 86, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2003), pp 565

F. Forghieri, R.W. Tkach, and A.R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, (1997) Academic Press (San Diego)

G.P. Agrawal “Wave propagation in Optical Fibers,” in Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)

Z. Panet al., “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2001), WH5

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Top) The signal undergoes dispersion compensation and then amplification and simultaneous frequency conversion. A simple average power measurement of a new monitor frequency is used to minimize the residual dispersion. (Bottom) The optical spectrum of points (I) through (IV). The peaks are signal (s), pump (p), idler (i) and monitor (m)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. PC-Polarization controller, FBG-Fiber Bragg grating and circulator based filter, MFL-Modelocked fiber laser, TDC-Tuneable dispersion compensator, VA-Variable attenuator, Attn-Attenuator, TBF-Tuneable bandpass filter, PM-Power meter, OSA-Optical Spectrum Analyzer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Left) The output from the device measured on the optical spectrum analyzer. (Right) The measured gain spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Left) The measured power transfer function between points A and B in Fig. 2 and (Right) the measured power and predicted power in peak (e) as a function of dispersion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(1.1 MB) Animation showing the evolution of the pulse train at ‘A’ and the corresponding spectral and power measurements.

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