Abstract

We report the design and testing of an SOI-based photonic integrated circuit containing two-dimensional membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides. The circuit comprises spot-size converters to efficiently couple light from a fiber into single-mode strip waveguides and buttcouplers to couple from strip waveguides to photonic crystal waveguides. Each optical interface was optimized to minimize back-reflections and reduce the Fabry-Perot noise. The transmission characteristics of each component are measured and record low propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides of 24dB/cm are reported. The combination of an efficient two-stage coupling scheme and utilization of ultra-long (up to 2mm) photonic crystal waveguides reduces the uncertainty in determining the loss figure to 3dB/cm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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  4. M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).
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    [Crossref]
  9. M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, “Numerical Analysis of Propagation and Impedance Matching in 2-D Photonic Crystal Waveguides With Finite Length,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173
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    [Crossref]
  24. N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, unpublished.

2003 (2)

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona “Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: Efficient butt-coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides,” J. App. Phys. 93, 4986–4991 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. C. Andreani and M. Agio “Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 2011 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (11)

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C. M. Soukoulis “Low-reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1522 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, “Numerical Analysis of Propagation and Impedance Matching in 2-D Photonic Crystal Waveguides With Finite Length,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

2000 (3)

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Adiabatic coupling between conventional dielectric waveguides and waveguides with discrete translational symmetry,” Opt. Lett. 25, 755 (2000)
[Crossref]

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, D. A.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Agio, M.

L. C. Andreani and M. Agio “Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 2011 (2003)
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C. M. Soukoulis “Low-reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1522 (2002).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V.

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani and M. Agio “Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 2011 (2003)
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and A. Motegi, “Clear correspondence between theoretical and experimental light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 37, 761 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blasco, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bona, G.-L.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona “Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: Efficient butt-coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides,” J. App. Phys. 93, 4986–4991 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boscolo, S.

Bozler, C.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. H.

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Cerrina, F.

Conti, C.

Doll, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fijol, J.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Fike, E.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Frish, M.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Fritze, M.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and A. Motegi, “Clear correspondence between theoretical and experimental light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 37, 761 (2001).
[Crossref]

Garcia, A.

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

Henry, C. H.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, S.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Karle, T. J.

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Keast, C.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Keating, P.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Kessler, B.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kistler, R. C.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Knecht, J.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, H.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Lalanne, Ph.

LeBlanc, J.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. K.

Lee, R. K.

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Manolatou, C.

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

Marti, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

McNab, S. J.

N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, unpublished.

Mekis, A.

Midrio, M.

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, M.

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moll, N.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona “Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: Efficient butt-coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides,” J. App. Phys. 93, 4986–4991 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, unpublished.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Motegi, A.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and A. Motegi, “Clear correspondence between theoretical and experimental light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 37, 761 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, D.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

Okano, M.

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Orlowsky, K. J.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R.

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Someda, C. G.

Soukoulis, C. M.

Steer, M.

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

Talneau, A.

Tokushima, M.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tomita, A.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Yu. A.

N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, unpublished.

Vuckovic, J.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R.

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Xu, Y.

Yamada, H.

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zutter, D. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

App. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, “Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda “Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,” App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. C. Andreani and M. Agio “Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 2011 (2003)
[Crossref]

App.Phys.Lett. (1)

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” App.Phys.Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and A. Motegi, “Clear correspondence between theoretical and experimental light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 37, 761 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. App. Phys. (1)

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona “Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: Efficient butt-coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides,” J. App. Phys. 93, 4986–4991 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, and T. F. Krauss, “Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,” J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, “3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics” IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165–166, (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, unpublished.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of the photonic IC. It consists of a fiber-to-strip waveguide (F-S) spot-size converter and strip-to-photonic crystal (S-PhC) waveguide butt-coupler making up the input and output to the photonic crystal waveguide. (b). Reference optical circuit with 450nm wide strip waveguide and central section with 700nm wide waveguide coupled via adiabatic tapers (same as S-PhC coupler as in 1a). (c). Schematic of the F-S spot-size converter optimized for the PhC-based circuit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrographs of a) PhC membrane waveguide with strip access waveguide. b) sidewall profile showing ~90 angle sidewalls. c) F-S coupler, end of the silicon taper tip is visible overlaid by thick (3µm in this case) polymer waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity of light scattered vertically from the reference optical circuit of Fig.1(b) with a 450nm wide strip waveguide for TE polarized light. Blue curve corresponds to the wavelength of 1550nm and black to 1330nm. Inset: Image of the vertically scattered light acquired by the IR camera. Several of such images were averaged to produce the traces in the main figure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fiber-to-fiber transmission through the reference optical circuit of Fig.1(b) with a 450nm wide strip waveguide. Inset shows insertion loss due to horizontal (X-axis) and vertical (Y-axis) misalignment.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Top: Transmission spectra for TE polarization in photonic IC with different PhC waveguide lengths. Spectral resolution is 5nm. Bottom: Photonic band diagram of the PhC waveguide for TE-like (even) modes. Vertical dashed line shows the light-line cutoff.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra for TE polarization of photonic IC with different PhC waveguide lengths. Spectra are normalized on transmission through the reference optical circuit of Fig.1(b) with a 450nm wide strip waveguide. The spectral resolution is 0.5nm. Inset: Attenuation at 1505nm for different length of the PhC waveguides.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of characterization of photonic IC components for TE polarization

Equations (2)

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P n = α PhC l n α strip ( L l n ) b
α PhC = P 2 P 1 l 1 l 2 + α strip

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