Abstract

We extend earlier work on two-electron photo-ionization to analyze electron momentum. We provide theoretical evidence distinguishing two categories of e-e trajectory associated with the correlation that develops when an “outer” electron returns to the nucleus in the presence of a high-intensity optical-wavelength laser field. We use the method of back-analysis to connect these two categories of trajectory with NSDI events having either nearly zero (Z) or substantially non-zero (NZ) total electron momentum.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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J. Mod. Optics

K. T. Taylor, J.S. Parker, D. Dundas, K.J. Meharg, L.R. Moore and J.F. McCann, �??Laser-driven helium, H+2 and H2,�?? J. Mod. Optics 50, 401 (2003).

J. Phys. B

Th.Weber et al., �??Sequential and nonsequential contributions to double ionization in strong laser fields,�?? J. Phys. B 33, L127(2000).
[CrossRef]

H.W. van der Hart, �??Sequential versus non-sequential double ionization in strong laser fields,�?? J. Phys. B 33, L699 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

Th. Weber et al., �??Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,�?? Nature (London) 405, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

B. Sheehy et al., �??Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,�?? Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.L. Haan, P.S. Wheeler, R. Panfili and J.H. Eberly, �??Origin of correlated electron eission in double ionization of atoms,�?? Phys. Rev. A 66, 061402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Javanainen, J.H. Eberly and Q. Su, �??Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,�?? Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430-3446 (1988) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. van der Hart and K. Burnett, �??Recollision model for double ionization of atoms in strong laser fields,�?? Phys. Rev. A 62, 013407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li-Bin Fu, Jie Liu, and Shi-Gang Chen, �??Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization of Helium,�?? Phys. Rev. A 65, RC021406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, �??Interplay of electron correlation and intense field dynamics in the double ionization of helium,�?? Phys. Rev. A 59, R1742 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Th. Weber et al., �??Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of Helium in strong laser fields,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer et al., �??Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baorui Yang et al., �??Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann et al., �??Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein et al., �??Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, �??Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopold et al., �??Routes to nonsequential double ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, �??Photoelectron spectra for a two-electron system in a strong laser field,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2905-2908 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. -C. Liu, J. H. Eberly, S. L. Haan and R. Grobe, �??Correlation effects in two-electron model atoms in intense laser fields,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

See K. J. Schafer, Baorui Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, �??Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, �??Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff et al., �??Observation of nonsequential double ionization of Helium with optical tunneling,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker et al., �??Precision measurement of strong field double ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, �??Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Kra¢inov, �??Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,�?? Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Other

P. J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, in preparation.

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

On the left, two-electron NSDI trajectory points are shown in coordinate space at the end of the third cycle of the pulse. The clusters beyond 5 a.u. in the first quadrant make up the jets in NSDI, and we label each quadrant with either Z or NZ according to whether the total momentum is approximately zero or non-zero. On the right, the panel shows the final total momentum distribution of all trajectories. The green and red boxes separate the Z and NZ regions respectively. In particular, the arrows in the Z and NZ regions pinpoint the total momenta of two different trajectories that will be examined.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution of a trajectory whose final position is near the outer edge of an NSDI jet. The left panel shows the trajectory in position space, both the details near the coordinate origin during the interval 3.1–4.0 cycles and, in the small inset, over a wider range of positions. The red dot marks the final point at 8 cycles. Note that the scales of these two plots are different. (1.9 MB) The right panel is a single frame from the animation that shows the time development of energy and position from 3.1 to 4.0 cycles, leading to NSDI.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of a non-jet NSDI trajectory. The large and small plots in the left panel show the time development of the two electrons in position space, during the animation time (3.4–4.3 cycles) and over the entire laser pulse respectively. The red dot indicates the final position of the two electrons at 8c. Note that the scale of these two plots are different. (1.9 MB) The right panel is a frame from the animation that shows the outer electron revisiting the core with high kinetic energy. The animation illustrates the time development of energy and position of two electrons from 3.4 to 4.3 cycles, leading to category Z NSDI.

Equations (1)

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H = p 1 2 2 + p 2 2 2 Z V ( x 1 ) Z V ( x 2 ) + V ( x 1 x 2 ) + ( x 1 + x 2 ) E ( t ) ,

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