Abstract

We measure the Bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of ooid sand layers with three particle size distributions (0.5–1mm, 0.25–0.5mm and 0.125–0.25mm) and layer thicknesses on a reflecting mirror to determine the influential depth in the optical region at wavelengths of 658 nm (red), 570 nm (green) and 457 nm (blue). The hemispherical reflectance (albedo) was used as an indicator of BRDF changes between different layers. Measurements are carried out on both dry and water wetted grains. The results indicate that for both dry and wet and all size distributions, the influential depth is at most 2mm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. J Remote Sens. (1)

S. Liang, "An investigation of remotely-sensed soil depth in the optical region," Int. J Remote Sens. 18, 3395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

M. Kuhl and B. Jorgensen, "The light field of microbenthic communities: radiance distribution and microscale optics of sandy coastal sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1368 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, K. J. Voss, R. P. Reid and E. Louchard, "Bi-directional reflectance measurements of sediments in the vicinity of Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

M. Kuhl, C. Lassen C and B. Jorgensen, "Light penetration and light intensity in sandy marine sediments measured with irradiance and scalar irradiance fiber-optic microprobes," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

K. J. Ranson, J. R. Irons and C. S. Daughtry, "Surface albedo from Bidirectional reflectance, " Remote Sens. Environ. 35, 201 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Hapke, Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

J.D. Milliman, Recent Sedimentary Carbonates Part 1: Marine Carbonates (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1974).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative transfer (Dover Publications, New York 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of sample holder. Aluminum spacer plates are placed below the mirror or black plate to achieve the desired sample layer thickness.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). REFF of a 10mm-thick dry layer of sample A (0.5–1 mm) by red light. (b). Same as (a) but REFF is plotted against phase angle. The incident zenith angles are indicated in boxes. See text for viewing angle specifications.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). REFF of 1.2mm-thick dry layer of sample A (0.5–1 mm) on mirror. (b) Same as (a) but plotted against phase angle. The incident zenith angles are indicated in boxes. See text for viewing angle specifications.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Repeated measurements on sample A (0.5–1 mm) to determine the variability in the albedo for replicate samples probed by (a) red light and (b) blue light. (c) Percent relative differences in the red between two surfaces of 4.5 mm and 10 mm thickness.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dry and wet albedos: (a) sample A, 0.5–1.0 mm ooids, (b) Sample B, 0.25–0.5 mm ooids, and (c) Sample C, 0.125–0.25 mm ooids. A broken blue LED caused a void data point at 35-degree incident zenith angle. The 6.8mm layer is very close to 4.5mm layer thus for clarity it is only shown for dry sample A.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) REFF of a 1.2mm layer of wet sample A at 65-degree incident zenith by red light, see Fig. 3(a) i=65° panel for comparisons. (b) Relative difference of wet and dry REFF of this layer.

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