Abstract

We propose a novel delay element for polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation by employing a tunable high-birefringence linearly chirped grating. The device can adjust differential group delay in a linearly continuous way and its performance is demonstrated by compensating 10-Gb/s signal with the first-order PMD. The tradeoff between PMD compensation capability of the device and the power penalty caused by the chromatic dispersion of the grating has also been studied.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.
  2. J. Kim, H. Yong, N. Park, and B. Lee., “Polarization-mode-dispersion compensator using a polarization beam splitter and quarter-wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4473–4475 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Component for optical PMD-compensation in a WDM environment,” European Conference on Optical Communication, pp.135–136 (2000).
  4. E. Brinkmeyer, “PMD compensation,” European Conference on Optical Communication, No.9.3.1 (2002)
  5. M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, “Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings,” European Conference on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998) pp.403–404.
  6. T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.
  8. Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.
  9. Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communications systems, Third Edition, (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2002), chap.5.
    [Crossref]
  12. C. D. Poole and C. R. Giles, “Polarization-dependent pulse compression and broadening due to polarization dispersion in dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Lett. 13, 155–157 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Gorden and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. National Academy of Sciences 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, H. Yong, N. Park, and B. Lee., “Polarization-mode-dispersion compensator using a polarization beam splitter and quarter-wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4473–4475 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. P. Gorden and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. National Academy of Sciences 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communications systems, Third Edition, (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2002), chap.5.
[Crossref]

Aiki, M.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brinkmeyer, E.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Component for optical PMD-compensation in a WDM environment,” European Conference on Optical Communication, pp.135–136 (2000).

E. Brinkmeyer, “PMD compensation,” European Conference on Optical Communication, No.9.3.1 (2002)

Ding, L.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Feng, D.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Giles, C. R.

Gorden, J. P.

J. P. Gorden and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. National Academy of Sciences 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grubsky, V.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Horiuchi, Y.

Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ibe, H.

T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.

Imai, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kai, G.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Khosravani, R.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Kim, J.

Knothe, C.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Component for optical PMD-compensation in a WDM environment,” European Conference on Optical Communication, pp.135–136 (2000).

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gorden and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. National Academy of Sciences 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kudo, T.

T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.

Lee, B.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.

Liu, N.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Namihira, Y.

Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ozeki, T.

T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.

Park, N.

Peng, J.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and C. R. Giles, “Polarization-dependent pulse compression and broadening due to polarization dispersion in dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Lett. 13, 155–157 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeldt, H.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Component for optical PMD-compensation in a WDM environment,” European Conference on Optical Communication, pp.135–136 (2000).

Schiano, M.

M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, “Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings,” European Conference on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998) pp.403–404.

Starodubov, D. S.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wakabayashi, H.

Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

Xie, Y.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.

Yang, X.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yong, H.

Yoshimura, M.

T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.

Yuan, S.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zaffiro, G.

M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, “Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings,” European Conference on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998) pp.403–404.

Zeng, Q.

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Aiki, “Automatic compensation technique for timewise fluctuating polarization mode dispersion in in-line amplifier systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 348–349 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Qin, Q. Zeng, X. Yang, D. Feng, L. Ding, G. Kai, Z. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, and N. Liu, “Bidirectional grating wavelength shifter with a broad-range tunablility by using a beam of uniform strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 326–328 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, and H. Wakabayashi, “Chromatic dispersion measurement in 1.55 um narrow-band region using a tunable external-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 1, 458–460 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. National Academy of Sciences (1)

J. P. Gorden and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. National Academy of Sciences 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communications systems, Third Edition, (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2002), chap.5.
[Crossref]

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “High-birefringence nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg grating for tunable compensation of polarization mode dispersion,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) pp.. 272–274.

T. Ozeki, M. Yoshimura, T. Kudo, and H. Ibe, “Polarization mode dispersion equalization experiment using a variable equalizing optical circuit controlled by a pulse-waveform-comparison technique,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) TuN4.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. lee, and A. E. Willner, “Tuanble compensation for polarization-mode dispersion using a birefringent nonlinearly-chirped Bragg grating in a dual-pass configuration,” U.S. Patent 6,400,869 B2, 2002.

H. Rosenfeldt, C. Knothe, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Component for optical PMD-compensation in a WDM environment,” European Conference on Optical Communication, pp.135–136 (2000).

E. Brinkmeyer, “PMD compensation,” European Conference on Optical Communication, No.9.3.1 (2002)

M. Schiano and G. Zaffiro, “Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings,” European Conference on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998) pp.403–404.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System diagram (a) Schematic diagram of the group delay and amplitude response of a Hi-Bi LCFBG (b) Configuration of the proposed delay element. The incoming signal has polarization components along both the fast (Pf) and slow (Ps) axis. The device generates the relative delay between the two polarizations for the Bragg reflected signal (λi ), while it does not affect the signal (λ 0) outside the grating bandwith.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Relative time delay for two polarization states.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Reflection spectrum of two polarization states. Wavelength tuning shifts the passband of the grating to longer or shorter wavelength regime for light polarized along the slow (dashed line) and fast (solid line) polarizations without changing in shape of spectrum (b) Measured polarization states.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DGD as a function of wavelength tuning of the grating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagram measurement.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BER curves for different input powers at 50 ps FWHM pulsewidth.

Equations (3)

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P in ( t ) = ε ̂ a M = l l b n + m G ( t ( κ + n 1 M ) T b )
E out = a + E + + a E
E ± = 1 2 π + E a ( ω ) e jωt ε ̂ ± e j ( ϕ ± ± Δ τ 2 ( ω ω 0 ) + 1 2 ψ ± ( ω ω 0 ) 2 ) d ω

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