Abstract

A non-destructive technique is presented to determine the refractive index profile of holey fiber preforms. The holes are filled with index matching oil and the holey preform deflection data is measured. An improved optical path-length formula and back projection method is used to reconstruct the two-dimensional filled holey fiber preform refractive index distribution.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibers: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4, 75–186 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M.C.J. Large, A. Argros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. M. Bassett, S. C. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 9, 319–327 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-7-319.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive measurement of index profile of an optical fibre perform,” Electron. Lett. 13, 736–738 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Marcuse, “Refractive index determination by the focusing method,” Appl. Opt. 18, 9–13 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurement of elliptical optical fibre or perform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 357–358 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Saekeang, P. L. Chu, and T. W. Whitbread, “Nondestructive measurement of refractive-index profile and cross sectional geometry of optical fibre performs,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2025–2030 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. L. Chu and C. Saekeang, “Nondestructive determination of refractive-index profile and cross-sectional geometry of optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 635–637 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).
  11. C. R. Crawford and A. C. Kak, “Aliasing artefacts in computerized tomography,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3704–3711 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

2003 (2)

T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibers: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4, 75–186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

2001 (1)

1982 (1)

P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Saekeang, P. L. Chu, and T. W. Whitbread, “Nondestructive measurement of refractive-index profile and cross sectional geometry of optical fibre performs,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2025–2030 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (4)

P. L. Chu and C. Saekeang, “Nondestructive determination of refractive-index profile and cross-sectional geometry of optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 635–637 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Refractive index determination by the focusing method,” Appl. Opt. 18, 9–13 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurement of elliptical optical fibre or perform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 357–358 (1979).
[Crossref]

C. R. Crawford and A. C. Kak, “Aliasing artefacts in computerized tomography,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3704–3711 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive measurement of index profile of an optical fibre perform,” Electron. Lett. 13, 736–738 (1977).
[Crossref]

Adams, M. J.

P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
[Crossref]

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
[Crossref]

Argros, A.

Bassett, I. M.

Chu, P. L.

C. Saekeang, P. L. Chu, and T. W. Whitbread, “Nondestructive measurement of refractive-index profile and cross sectional geometry of optical fibre performs,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2025–2030 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Chu and C. Saekeang, “Nondestructive determination of refractive-index profile and cross-sectional geometry of optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 635–637 (1979).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurement of elliptical optical fibre or perform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 357–358 (1979).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive measurement of index profile of an optical fibre perform,” Electron. Lett. 13, 736–738 (1977).
[Crossref]

Crawford, C. R.

de Sterke, C. M.

Fleming, S.

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

Fleming, S. C.

Francois, P. L.

P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
[Crossref]

Issa, N. A.

Kak, A. C.

Large, M.C.J.

Lyytikainen, K.

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

Manos, S.

Marcuse, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibers: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4, 75–186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, K.

K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Payne, D. N.

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
[Crossref]

Poladian, L.

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibers: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4, 75–186 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saekeang, C.

C. Saekeang, P. L. Chu, and T. W. Whitbread, “Nondestructive measurement of refractive-index profile and cross sectional geometry of optical fibre performs,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2025–2030 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Chu and C. Saekeang, “Nondestructive determination of refractive-index profile and cross-sectional geometry of optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 635–637 (1979).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, I.

P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
[Crossref]

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

Tajima, K

K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Whitbread, T. W.

Zagari, J.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

Zhou, J.

K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (3)

C. R. Physique (1)

T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, “Holey optical fibers: Fundamental properties and device applications,” C. R. Physique 4, 75–186 (2003).
[Crossref]

COIN/ACOFT Proceeding (1)

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen, and L. Poladian, “Nondestructive measurement of two dimensional refractive index profile of non-circularly symmetric optical fiber preform,” COIN/ACOFT Proceeding,  TUC3-4, 323–326 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (4)

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurement of elliptical optical fibre or perform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 357–358 (1979).
[Crossref]

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, “Measurement of refractive index profiles in optical fibre preforms by spatial filtering technique,” Electron. Lett. 16, 219–221 (1980).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive measurement of index profile of an optical fibre perform,” Electron. Lett. 13, 736–738 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chu and C. Saekeang, “Nondestructive determination of refractive-index profile and cross-sectional geometry of optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 15, 635–637 (1979).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

P. L. Francois, I. Sasaki, and M. J. Adams, “Practical three-dimensional profiling of optical fibre performs,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 18, 524–534 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

K Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” OFC’03, PD1 (2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ray trajectory in a Filled Holey Fiber preform (FHFP) cross section

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Eight-hole silica HFP tomography plots: (a) Refractive index distribution of three-dimensional display of FHFP; (b) Cross-section display of HFP.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three-hole Polymer HFP tomography plots (a)Three dimensional display of the measured refractive index profile of a polymer filled holey fibre preform (bottom view) (b) Three dimensional display of the refractive index profile of the polymer HFP.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two-dimensional display of the refractive index profile of the three-ring 48 holes polymer FHFP.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( ρ , θ ) = n 0 + Δ n ( ρ ) + δ n ( ρ , θ )
ψ ( ρ , θ ) n 0 0 ρ ϕ ( ξ , θ ) d ξ + n 0 ρ 12 ϕ ( ρ , θ ) 3 + C 0
C 0 = 2 0 R Δ n ( r ) d r
f ( x , y ) π N l = 1 N g θ l ( x cos θ l + y sin θ l )
g θ ( ρ ) = S θ ( k ) k exp ( i 2 π k ρ ) d k
S θ ( k ) = ψ θ ( ρ ) exp ( i 2 π k ρ ) d ρ

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