Abstract

This paper reports on the realization of a type of micromachined retroreflecting sheeting material. The geometry presented has high reflection efficiency even at large incident angles, and it can be manufactured through polymer replication techniques. The paper consists of two parts: A theoretical section outlining the design parameters and their impact on the optical performance, and secondly, an experimental part comprising both manufacturing and optical evaluation for a candidate retroreflecting sheet material in traffic control devices. Experimental data show that the retroreflecting properties are promising. The retroreflector consists of a front layer of densely packed spherical microlenses, a back surface of densely packed spherical micromirrors, and a transparent spacer layer. The thickness of the spacer layer determines in part the optical characteristics of the retroreflector.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (4)

Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics (1)

M. Rossi and I. Kallioniemi, "Micro-optical modules fabricated by high-precision replication processes", in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 75 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 108-110.

IOP Short Meetings (1)

D. Daly, R.F. Stevens, M.C. Hutley, and N. Davies, �??The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,�?? IOP Short Meetings 30, 23-34 (1991).

Laser Focus World (1)

T. W. Liepmann, �??How retroreflectors bring the light back,�?? Laser Focus World 30, 129-132 (1994).

Microsystem Technologies (1)

O. Rötting, W. Röpke, H. Becker, and C. Gärtner, �??Polymer microfabrication technologies,�?? Microsystem Technologies 8, 32-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. H. Seward and P. S. Cort, �??Measurement and characterization of angular reflectance for cube-corners and microspheres�??, Opt. Eng. 38, 164-169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. R. Jay, M. B. Stern, and R. E. Knowlden, �??Effect of refractive microlens array fabrication parameters on optical quality,�?? in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, C Roychoudhuri and W B Veldkamp, Eds., Proc. SPIE 1751, 236-245 (1992).

Other (10)

CIE Standard Illuminants for Colorimetry, joint ISO 10526:1999 / CIE S005/E-1998 standard.

Product Catalog for Traffic Control Materials (3M Traffic Control Materials Division, St. Paul, MN, 2003), <a href="http://www.3M.com/tcm">http://www.3M.com/tcm</a>.

Publication CIE 15.2-1986, Colorimetry, 2nd Edition, ISBN 3 900 734 00 3 (Commission Internationale de L�??Eclairage, 1986).

Corning SMILE�?� Lens Array (Corning Incorporated Photonic Materials, Corning, NY, 2003) <a href="http://www.corning.com/photonicmaterials">http://www.corning.com/photonicmaterials</a>.

Publication CIE 54.2-2001, Retroreflection: Definition and measurement, ISBN 3 900 734 992 (Commission Internationale de L�??Eclairage, 2001).

L. Danielsson and S. Niemann, �??Optical microrelief retroreflector�??, International Publication Number WO 95/34006, Dec. 14, 1995.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th Edition, (Addison Wesley Longman Inc., Reading, MA, 2002), Ch. 5 and 11.

Software OSLO Rev. 6.1 (Lambda Research Corp., Littleton, MA, 2003), <a href="http://www.sinopt.com">http://www.sinopt.com</a>.

Publication CIE 72-1987, Guide to the properties and uses of retroreflectors at night, ISBN 3 900 734 089 (Commission Internationale de L�??Eclairage , 1987).

O. �?hman, H. Sjödin, B. Ekström, and G. Jacobsson, �??Microfluidic structure and process for its manufacture,�?? International Publication Number WO 91/16966, Nov. 14, 1991, and U.S. Patent 5 376 252, Dec. 27, 1994.

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