Abstract

We have developed a soft lithography method to replicate polymeric integrated optical devices. In this method, the master device and the molded replica are made of the same materials, allowing direct comparison. To evaluate the quality of the replication, microring optical resonators are chosen as test devices because of their sensitivity to small fabrication errors. The master devices are precisely fabricated using direct electron beam lithography. The replicas are produced by the molding technique and subsequent ultraviolet curing. Compared with the master devices, the molded devices show minimal change in both physical shape and optical performance. This correspondence indicates the merits of soft lithographic methods for fabrication of precision integrated optical devices.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Control of critical coupling in a ring resonator-fiber configuration: application to wavelength-selective seitching, modulation, amplification, and oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1236–1238 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Ring fiber resonators based on fused-fiber grating add-drop filters: application to resonator coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1598–1600 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1862–2866 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550–575 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science 290, 1536–1540 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Ring fiber resonators based on fused-fiber grating add-drop filters: application to resonator coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1598–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science 290, 1536–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anni, M.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbarella, G.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. M.

Cingolani, R.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, F. M.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolodner, P.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kunnavakkam, M. V.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, N. B.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Liddle, J. A.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindvold, L. R.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. A.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pisignano, D.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science 290, 1536–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabiei, P.

Rogers, J. A.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruel, R.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science 290, 1536–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlax, M.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schueller, O. J. A.

Seki, A.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. P.

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sotgiu, G.

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Suganuma, N.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waldman, S. J.

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. A. Schueller, G. M. Whitesides, J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Fabrication of photonic crystal lasers by nanomolding of solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5799–5802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhang, C.

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152–1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017–1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, “Using printing and molding techniques to produce distributed feedback and Bragg reflector resonatiors for plastic lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766–1768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplaner substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel, and O. Nalamasu, “Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X. M. Zhao, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lighographic methods for nano-fabrication,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1069–1074 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, “Fabrication of all-polymer freestanding waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. (1)

N. Suganuma, A. Seki, Y. Tanaka, M. Ichikawa, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Organic polymer DBR laser by softlithography,” J. Photopoly. Sci. Tech. 15, 273–278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators fabricated by nanoimprint technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1862–2866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science 290, 1536–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Metals (1)

D. Pisignano, M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Sotgiu, “Flexible organic distributed feedback structures by soft lithography,” Synth. Metals 137, 1057–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of fabrication processes. Generally, the UV curable polymer can be either the same material used for electron beam lithography or different ones.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical setup for transmission measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical microscope image of microring optical resonator fabricated by soft lithography. The inset shows the detail of coupling region. The ring diameter is 200 µm, the waveguide width is 2µm, and the gap between the straight waveguide and the microring is 250 nm. Light from a He-Ne laser is input into the device for illustration only.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic geometry for waveguide ring resonator coupling. The color plot is a finite-difference time-domain simulation of the coupling between the straight waveguide and the ring.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison between the transmission spectra of master microring resonator optical filter and molded one.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ b 1 b 2 ] = [ t κ κ * t * ] [ a 1 a 2 ] ,
t 2 + κ 2 = 1 .
b 1 a 1 2 = α 2 + t 2 2 α t cos θ 1 + α 2 t 2 2 α t cos θ .
b 1 a 1 2 = ( α t ) 2 ( 1 α t ) 2 .

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