Abstract

In this paper we evaluate the temporal evolution, after exposure, of a diffraction grating stored in a PVA/acrylamide photopolymer. We also study the overmodulation of the refractive index inside the hologram, which gives rise to a particular behaviour of the angular response of diffraction efficiency. This evolution takes place in our photopolymer due to the incorporation of dimethylacrylamide (DMAA), which is a liquid at room temperature and so favours diffusion of the species in solution from the zones of greater concentration to those of lower concentration.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Lessard and G. Manivannan, eds., Selected Papers on Photopolymers, MS 114, (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Belligham 1996).
  2. D. J. Lougnot, �??Self-processing photopolymer materials for holographic recording,�?? in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard and W. F. Frank, eds., Crit. Rev. Opt. Sci. Technol., Proc. SPIE CR63, 190-213 (1996).
  3. H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis and G. T. Sincerbox, eds., Holographic data storage (Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2000), p 171.
  4. S. Martin, P. E. Leclere, Y. L. Renotte, V. Toal and Y. F. Lion, �??Characterization of an acrylamide-based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 3942-3946 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Weiss, E. Millul and A. A. Friesem, �??Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization,�?? in Holographic Materials II, T. H. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688, 11-21 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Blaya, L. Carretero, R. Mallavia, A. Fimia, M. Ulibarrena and D. Levy, �??Optimization of an acrylamidebased dry film used for holographic recording,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 7604-7610 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. García, A. Fimia and I. Pascual, �??Diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse-object holograms in real time in polyvinyl alcohol photopolymers,�?? Appl. Opt. 38, 5548-5551 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. García, A. Fimia and I. Pascual, �??Holographic behavior of a photopolymer at high thicknesses and high monomer concentrations: Mechanism of polymerization,�?? Appl. Phys. B 72, 311-316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. García, I. Pascual, A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, C. Gómez, A. Fimia and R. Sastre, �??Hologram recording in polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymers by means of pulsed laser exposure,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 2613-2620, (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London 1981), p. 79.
  11. H. Kogelnik, �??Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,�?? Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).
  12. C. Neipp, I. Pascual and A. Beléndez, �??Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,�?? J. Opt. A 3, 504-5513 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Neipp, C. Pascual and A. Beléndez, �??Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorden in bleached silver halide materials,�?? J. Phys. D 35, 957-67 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Neipp, I. Pascual and A. Beléndez, �??Experimental evidence of mixed gratings with a phase difference between the phase and amplitude grating in volume holograms,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1374-1383 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (1)

C. García, A. Fimia and I. Pascual, �??Holographic behavior of a photopolymer at high thicknesses and high monomer concentrations: Mechanism of polymerization,�?? Appl. Phys. B 72, 311-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, �??Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,�?? Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

J. Opt. A (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual and A. Beléndez, �??Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,�?? J. Opt. A 3, 504-5513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. Neipp, C. Pascual and A. Beléndez, �??Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorden in bleached silver halide materials,�?? J. Phys. D 35, 957-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Martin, P. E. Leclere, Y. L. Renotte, V. Toal and Y. F. Lion, �??Characterization of an acrylamide-based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 3942-3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Weiss, E. Millul and A. A. Friesem, �??Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization,�?? in Holographic Materials II, T. H. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688, 11-21 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. A. Lessard and G. Manivannan, eds., Selected Papers on Photopolymers, MS 114, (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Belligham 1996).

D. J. Lougnot, �??Self-processing photopolymer materials for holographic recording,�?? in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard and W. F. Frank, eds., Crit. Rev. Opt. Sci. Technol., Proc. SPIE CR63, 190-213 (1996).

H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis and G. T. Sincerbox, eds., Holographic data storage (Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2000), p 171.

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London 1981), p. 79.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) as a function of exposure in the Bragg angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 1 in Fig. 2, immediately after exposure (Δn = 0.00678).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 2 in Fig. 2, 11/2 hours after the grating isrecorded (Δn = 0.00503).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 3 in Fig. 2, 3 hours after the grating is recorded (Δn = 0.00442).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 4 in Fig. 2, 24 hours after the grating is recorded (Δn = 0.00227).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 5 in Fig. 2, 48 hours after the grating is recorded (Δn = 0.001763).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and transmission efficiency (TE) as a function of the angle at reconstruction at point 6 in Fig. 2, 96 hours after the grating is recorded (Δn = 0.00118).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Fraction of refractive index modulation remained as function of time after the hologram was recorded. For films with DMAA.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Fraction of refractive index modulation remained as function of time after the hologram was recorded. For films without DMAA.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Components of the photopolymerizable solution.

Equations (8)

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R ( d ) = exp ( j ξ α d 2 cos θ ) [ cos ϕ + j ( ξ ϕ ) sin ϕ ]
S ( d ) = j exp ( j ξ α d 2 cos θ ) sin ϕ ϕ ν
ϕ = ν 2 + ξ 2
ν = πΔ nd λ cos θ
ξ = d ϑ 2 cos θ
ϑ = β 2 σ 2 2 β
η = exp ( αd cos θ ' ) sin 2 ( ν 2 + ξ 2 ) 1 2 1 + ( ξ 2 ν 2 )
η = exp ( αd cos θ ' ) sin 2 ν

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