Abstract

Coherent X-ray Diffraction is applied to investigate the structure of individual nanocrystalline silver particles in the 100nm size range. In order to enhance the available signal, Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing optics have been introduced in the 34-ID-C beamline at APS. Concerns about the preservation of coherence under these circumstances are addressed through experiment and by calculations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Sayre, �??Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,�?? Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, �??Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,�?? Nature 400, 342 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, �??Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai and K. O. Hodgson, �??High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer and J. A. Pitney, �??Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson and I. A. Vartanyants, �??Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,�?? Physica B 336 56-62 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, �??Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,�?? Opt. Eng. 39 2748-2762 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  8. Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, �??Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,�?? Science 298, 2176 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson and I. K. Robinson, �??Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,�?? Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).
  10. J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney and I. K.Robinson, �??Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,�?? J. Synchrotron Radiation 4 125-127 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, �??Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 2961-2964 (1996)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. E. Gureyev, �??Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,�?? Opt. Commun. 220 49-58 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. A. Nugent, Melbourne University, private communication.

J. Synchrotron Radiation (1)

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney and I. K.Robinson, �??Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,�?? J. Synchrotron Radiation 4 125-127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, �??Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,�?? Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. E. Gureyev, �??Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,�?? Opt. Commun. 220 49-58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, �??Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,�?? Opt. Eng. 39 2748-2762 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, �??Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai and K. O. Hodgson, �??High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer and J. A. Pitney, �??Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, �??Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 2961-2964 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson and I. A. Vartanyants, �??Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,�?? Physica B 336 56-62 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (1)

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson and I. K. Robinson, �??Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,�?? Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Science (1)

Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, �??Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,�?? Science 298, 2176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springer Lecture Notes in Physics (1)

D. Sayre, �??Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,�?? Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. A. Nugent, Melbourne University, private communication.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns recorded from a single silver nanocrystal. The full frame view is roughly centered on the rocking curve, while the inset is on the side.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic ray tracing of the focusing geometry. The KB mirror is at a distance z=D if front of the focus, while the illuminated sample (thick vertical bar) is at z=d, the defocus distance. Ray O is the central ray, while ray X crosses the sample a distance x above the axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated far-field diffraction patterns for a cube, oriented diagonally, under different illumination conditions. Top left: plane wave. Top right: spherical wave with a phase shift of π/4 at the cube edges. Bottom left: spherical wave with a phase shift of π/2. Bottom right: cylindrical wave with a phase shift of π/4 in the horizontal only.

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