Abstract

Coherent X-ray Diffraction is applied to investigate the structure of individual nanocrystalline silver particles in the 100nm size range. In order to enhance the available signal, Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing optics have been introduced in the 34-ID-C beamline at APS. Concerns about the preservation of coherence under these circumstances are addressed through experiment and by calculations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Sayre, “Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,” Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  7. M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  8. Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).
  10. J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. E. Gureyev, “Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,” Opt. Commun. 22049–58 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. A. Nugent, Melbourne University, private communication.

2003 (3)

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
[Crossref]

T. E. Gureyev, “Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,” Opt. Commun. 22049–58 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

D. Sayre, “Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,” Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, C. A.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Blank, B.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Cambie, D.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cookson, D. F.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deyhim, A.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Duarte, R. M.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Fuoss, P. H.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Gureyev, T. E.

T. E. Gureyev, “Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,” Opt. Commun. 22049–58 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgson, K. O.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Irick, S.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, B.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenney-Benson, C. A.

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
[Crossref]

Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kupp, T.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Lai, B.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libbert, J. L.

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

MacDowell, A. A.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, Melbourne University, private communication.

Padmore, H. A.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Paganin, D.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, M. A.

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pitney, J. A.

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rah, S.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Renner, T. R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

Sandler, R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Sayre, D.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Sayre, “Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,” Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sun, Yugang

Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I. A.

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. J.

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xia, Younan

Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiation (1)

J. L. Libbert, J. A. Pitney, and I. K. Robinson, “Asymmetric Fraunhofer Diffraction from Roller Blade Slits,” J. Synchrotron Radiation 4125–127 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometer-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. E. Gureyev, “Composite Techniques for Phase Retrieval in the Fresnel Region,” Opt. Commun. 22049–58 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. M. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, and R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 392748–2762 (2000)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 772961–2964 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional Imaging of Microstructure in Gold Nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 17 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High Resolution 3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Robinson, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, and J. A. Pitney, “Reconstruction of the Shapes of Gold Nanocrystals using Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

I. K. Robinson, C. A. Kenney-Benson, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Sources of Decoherence in Beamline Optics,” Physica B 33656–62 (2003)
[Crossref]

Science (1)

Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springer Lecture Notes in Physics (1)

D. Sayre, “Imaging Processes and Coherence in Physics,” Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 112, 229 (1980).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. A. Nugent, Melbourne University, private communication.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, P. H. Fuoss, C. A. Benson, and I. K. Robinson, “Development of a Double Crystal Monochromator,” Proceedings of SRI conference, Berkeley (2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns recorded from a single silver nanocrystal. The full frame view is roughly centered on the rocking curve, while the inset is on the side.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic ray tracing of the focusing geometry. The KB mirror is at a distance z=D if front of the focus, while the illuminated sample (thick vertical bar) is at z=d, the defocus distance. Ray O is the central ray, while ray X crosses the sample a distance x above the axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated far-field diffraction patterns for a cube, oriented diagonally, under different illumination conditions. Top left: plane wave. Top right: spherical wave with a phase shift of π/4 at the cube edges. Bottom left: spherical wave with a phase shift of π/2. Bottom right: cylindrical wave with a phase shift of π/4 in the horizontal only.

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