Abstract

X-ray interferometry for imaging applications is discussed with a review of X-ray interferometric imaging activities reported to date. Phase measurement and phase tomography based on X-ray interferometry are also presented. Finally the advantage of X-ray interferometric imaging in comparison with other phase-sensitive X-ray imaging methods is discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Opt. (1)

F. Delmotte, M.-F. Ravet F. Bridou, F. Varnière, P. Zeitoun, S. Hubert, L. Vanbostal, G. Soullie, �??X-ray ultraviolet beam splitters for the Michelson interferometer,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 5905-5912 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Leitenberger and A. Snigirev, �??Microscopic imaging with high energy X-rays by Fourier transform holography,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 90, 538-544 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, �??An X-ray interferometer,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155-156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, E. Ziegler, �??Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3287-3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Cloetens, W. Luding, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J. P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, �??Holotomography: Quantitative phase tomography with micrometer resolution using hard synchrotron radiation x rays,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912- (1999).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (1)

T. Takeda, A. Momose, J. Wu, Q. Yu, T. Zeniya, Thet-Thet-Lwin, A. Yoneyama, Y. Itai, �??Vessel imaging by interferometric phase-contrast X-ray technique,�?? Circulation 105, 1708-1712 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

P. Becker and U. Bonse, �??The skew-symmetric two-crystal X-ray interferometer,�?? J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 593-598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kohmura, T. Ishikawa, H. Takano, Y. Suzuki, �??Shearing X-ray interferometer with an X-ray prism,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2283-2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

I. V. Ingal, E. A. Beliaevskaya, �??X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,�?? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 28, 2314-2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (3)

N. Watanabe, H. Yokosuka, T. Ohigashi, H. Takano, A. Takeuchi, Y. Suzuki, A. Aoki, �??Optical holography in the hard X-ray domain,�?? J. Phys. IV 104, 551-556 (2003).

Y. Kagoshima, Y. Yokoyama, T. Niimi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, J. Matsui, K. Takai, �??Hard X-ray phasecontrast microscope for observing transparent specimens,�?? J. Phys. IV 104, 49-52 (2003).

A. Momose, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, H. Yoshikawa, T. Takeda, J. Wu, Y. Itai, K. Takai, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, �??Phase-contrast microtomography using an X-ray interferometer having a 40-µm analyzer,�?? J. Phys. IV 104, 599-602 (2003).

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2)

A. Yoneyama, A. Momose, I. Koyama, E. Seya, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, K. Hyodo, �??Large-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer,�?? J. Synchrotron Rad. 9, 277-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, �??Phase-contrast X-ray imaging based on interferometry,�?? J. Synchrotron Rad. 9, 136-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Haga, H. Takenaka, M. Fukuda, �??At-wavelength extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection using a Mirau interferometric microscope,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2916-2920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Momose and K. Hirano, �??The possibility of phase-contrast X-ray microtomography,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, Suppl. 38-1, 625-629 (1999).

I. Koyama, H. Yoshikawa, A. Momose, �??Phase-contrast X-ray imaging with a triple-Bragg-case interferometer,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 80-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, Y. Suzuki, �??Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot Interferometry,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866-L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, �??Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,�?? Med. Phys. 22, 375-380 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, �??Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,�?? Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

W. Cash, A. Shipley, S. Osterman, M. Joy, �??Laboratory detection of X-ray fringes with a grazing-incidence interferometer,�?? Nature 407, 160-162 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, �??Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,�?? Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, �??Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,�?? Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

A. Momose, �??Demonstration of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer,�?? Nucl. Instrum. & Methods A 352, 622-628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. Talbot, �??Facts relating to optical science,�?? Phil. Mag. 9, 401-407 (1836).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, �??Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging,�?? Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, �??Electron density measurements of high density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991-3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, �??X-ray interferometry with multicrystal components using intensity correlation,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 044801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, T. E. Gureyev, �??A phase odyssey,�?? in Physics Today (AIP, August 2001) pp. 27-32.

Radiology (2)

T. Takeda, A. Momsoe, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, �??Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast X-ray CT with synchrotron radiation�??comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,�?? Radiology 214, 298-301 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, �??Blood vessels: depiction at phase-contrast X-ray imaging without contrast agents in the mouse and rat�??feasibility study,�?? Radiology 217, 593-596 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, I. Schelokov, �??On the possibilities of X-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,�?? Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5486-5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells, D. P. Kern, �??High-resolution imaging by Fourier transform X-ray holography,�?? Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Physik (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, �??An X-ray interferometer with Bragg case beam splitting and beam recombination,�?? Z. Physik 194, 1-17 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, C. David, T. Wilhein, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, �??Phase contrast studies of hydrated specimens with the X-ray microscope at BESSY,�?? in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov and A. I. Erko, eds., (Chernogolovka, Russia, 1994) pp.196-206.

A. Authier, Dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction (Oxford, New York, 2001).

D. Joyeux and F. Polack, �??Carbon index measurement near K edge, by interferometry with optoelectronic detection,�?? in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, E. Umbach, eds., (Springer, Berlin, 1998), pp. II.103-II.112.

D. Joyeux, R. Mercier, D. Phalippou, M. Mullot, S. Hubert, P. Zeitoun, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, G. Jamelot, E. Béchir, G. de Lacheze-Murel, �??An interferometric microimaging system for probing laser plasma with an X-ray laser,�?? in X-Ray Microscopy, W. Meyer-Ilse, T. Warwick, D. Attwood, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 511-514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Crystal X-ray interferometers used for interferometric imaging: (a) monolithic LLL X-ray interferometer, (b) interferometer consisting of two crystal blocks carrying two lamellae, and (c) BBB X-ray interferometer. S: beam splitter, M: mirror, A: analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray interferometer consisting of two crystal blocks: (a) Stage for aligning the blocks and beam paths, (b) Interference pattern generated with this interferometer using 0.07-nm X-rays. From J. Synchrotron Rad. 9, 277 (2002).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Differential X-ray interferometers using a prism (a) and gratings (G1, G2) (b), (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

X-ray interferometry with focusing optics. Using a twin zone plate (a), two focal spots have been formed generating an interference field downstream. When the twin zone plate is used as an objective lens, a differential phase-contrast image is obtained. Using a transmission grating, an interferometer (b) for testing focusing optics has also been developed.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

X-ray interferometers using free-standing multilayers (a) or gratings (b) for amplitude division. Interference fringes could be observed by using a single shot of soft X-ray laser.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Soft X-ray interferometers using synchrotron radiation. By using Fresnel’s bimirror (a), a comparatively stable interferometer has been developed. Operation of a Mirau interferometer (b) with a free-standing multilayer is a notable achievement.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase map measured with 0.07-nm X-rays by means of the fringe scanning method using the LLL X-ray interferometer. Blood vessels in a mouse liver were depicted by replacing blood with physiological salt solution. The contrast caused by the thickness variation of the liver has been removed by image processing.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The tissue of a rat kidney measured by phase tomography with 0.1-nm X-rays using the LLL X-ray interferometer with a 40-µm analyzer.

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