Abstract

In this paper we introduce phase diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that beside simple focusing, can perform new optical functions in the range of x-rays. In particular, the intensity of the wavefront can be distributed with almost complete freedom. We calculated and fabricated high resolution DOEs that can focus a monochromatic x-ray beam into multiple spots displaced in a single or two planes along the optical axis or can shape the beam into a desired continuous geometrical pattern. The possibility to introduce a specified phase shift between the generated spots, which can increase the image contrast, is demonstrated by preliminary results obtained from computer simulations and experiments performed in visible light. The functionality of the DOEs has been tested successfully in full-field differential interference contrast (DIC) x-ray microscopy at the ID21 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) operated at 4 keV photon energy.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. Susini, R. Barret, B. Kaulich, S. Oestreich, and M. Salomé, �??The X-ray microscopy facility at the ESRF: A status report,�?? AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 19-26 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, �??Differential interference contrast X-ray microscopy with submicron resolution,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082-2084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, �??A technique for projection x-ray lithography using computer-generated holograms,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2993-3001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. of Microscopy (1)

P. J. McMahon, E.D. Barone-Nugent, B.E. Allman, and K.A. Nugent, �??Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM,�?? J. of Microscopy 206, 204-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, B. Fayard, and J. Susini, �??Differential interference contrast X-ray microscopy with twin zone plates,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 797-806 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

C. Preza, D.L. Snyder, J.A. Conchello, �??Theoretical development and experimental evaluation of imaging models for differential-interference-contrast microscopy,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2185-2199 (1999).

J. Phys. IV France (1)

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, and J. Susini, �??Design and fabrication of new optics for X-ray microscopy and material science,�?? J. Phys. IV France 104, 177-183 (2003).

Microelectronic Eng. (1)

D. Cojoc, E Di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S.Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, M. Altissimo, �??Design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezer arrays by means of e-beam lithography,�?? Microelectronic Eng. 61-62, 963-969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrertt, �??High efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,�?? Nature 40, 895-898 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A.A Firsov, A.A. Svintsov, S.I. Zaitsev, A. Erko, A, V.V. Aristov, �??The first synthetic X-ray hologram: results,�?? Opt. Commun 202, 55-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, �??Phase-contrast X-ray microscopy studies,�?? Optik 97, 181-182 (1994).

Physica (1)

F. Zernike, �??Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,�?? Physica 9, 686-698, (1942).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Metall. (1)

G. Normarski, and A.R. Weill, �??Application à la métallographie des methods interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,�?? Rev. Metall. 2, 121-128 (1955).

SPIE Proc. (1)

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, �??Novel diffractive optics for x-ray beam shaping,�?? SPIE Proc. 4783, 105-114 (2002).

Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Facci, D. Alliata, L. Andolfi, B. Schnyder, R. Koetz, "Formation and characterization of protein monolayers on oxygen-exposing surfaces by multiple-step self-chemisorption," Surf. Sci. 504C, 282-292 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

G. Schneider, �??Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,�?? Ultramicroscopy 75, 85-104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation; principles and applications, (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X-rays, (Plenum Press, New York, 1986).

Applied Optics Research, �??GLAD 4.5 Theoretical Description,�?? 4.1-5.15 (AOR 1997).

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