Abstract

An introduction to x-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy is given by describing its relationship to speckle from coherent sources. Its use to measure two-time correlation functions is demonstrated using the equilibrium fluctuations of gold colloids in polystyrene and for non-equilibrium fluctuations in the unmixing below the miscibility gap in AlLi.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Wyn Brown, editor, Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993).
  2. B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1976).
  3. M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” in Third-Generation Hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources: Source Properties, Optics, and Experimental Techniques, Dennis M. Mills ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, 2002), Chap. 3.
  8. D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.
  13. K. Schaẗzel, “Single photon correlation techniques,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 2.
  14. E. Geissler, “Dynamic light scattering from polymer gels,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 11.
  15. B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic Press, New York1975), Sect. V.5.
  16. A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).
  18. G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, “Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator,” Rev. Sci Inst. 70, 3214–3221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, “Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator,” Rev. Sci Inst. 70, 3214–3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abernathy, D.

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Abernathy, D. L.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Als-Nielsen, J.

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, L. E.

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermann, L. E.

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1976).

Bertolotti, M.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic Press, New York1975), Sect. V.5.

Bley, F.

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Brauer, S.

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brüning, R.

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, N. S.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.

Caudron, R.

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipelletti, L.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, “Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator,” Rev. Sci Inst. 70, 3214–3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corbierre, M. K.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic Press, New York1975), Sect. V.5.

Detlefs, C.

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic Press, New York1975), Sect. V.5.

Dierker, S.

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufresne, E.

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, E. W.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, R. M.

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geissler, E.

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Geissler, “Dynamic light scattering from polymer gels,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 11.

Grant, M.

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greytak, T.

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grübel, G.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Hecht, A-M.

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Held, G.

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laaziri, K.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.

Lennox, R. B.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livet, F.

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Lumma, D.

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lurio, L. B.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malik, A.

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meier, G.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochrie, S. G. J.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nagler, S. E.

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patkowski, A.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pecora, R.

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1976).

Pelletier, J. F.

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pindak, R.

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhüm, A.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rikvold, P. A.

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochas, C.

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, A. R.

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scha?zel, K.

K. Schaẗzel, “Single photon correlation techniques,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 2.

Steffen, W.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephenson, G. B.

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, M.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” in Third-Generation Hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources: Source Properties, Optics, and Experimental Techniques, Dennis M. Mills ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, 2002), Chap. 3.

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

Thurn-Albrecht, T.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, “Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator,” Rev. Sci Inst. 70, 3214–3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, S. G. J. Mochrie, L. B. Lurio, A. Rhüm, and R. B. Lennox, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10411–10412 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Synch. Rad. (1)

A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, A. Malik, G. B. Stephenson, J. F. Pelletier, and M. Sutton, “Design and Characterization of an Undulator Beamline Optimized for Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering at the Advanced Photon Source,” J. Synch. Rad. 6, 1174–1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Sutton, S. E. Nagler, S. G. J. Mochrie, T. Greytak, L. E. Bermann, G. Held, and G. B. Stephenson, “The Observation of Speckle by Diffraction with Coherent X-rays,” Nature 352, 608–610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Speckle from phase-ordering systems,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6601–6612 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, P. A. Rikvold, M. Sutton, and M. Grant, “Evolution of speckle during spinodal decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 5151–5162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Geissler, A-M. Hecht, C. Rochas, F. Bley, F. Livet, and M. Sutton, “Aging in a filled polymer: Coherent small angle x-ray and light scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 8308–8313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malik, A. R. Sandy, L. B. Lurio, G. B. Stephenson, S. G. J. Mochrie, I. McNulty, and M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Study of Fluctuations During Domain Coarsening,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5832–5835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Brauer, G. B. Stephenson, M. Sutton, R. Brüning, E. Dufresne, S. G. J. Mochrie, G. Grübel, J. Als-Nielsen, and D. L. Abernathy, “X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy observations of critical dynamics in Fe3Al,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2010–2013 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dierker, R. Pindak, R. M. Fleming, I. K. Robinson, and L. E. Berman, “X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449–552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thurn-Albrecht, W. Steffen, A. Patkowski, G. Meier, E. W. Fischer, G. Grübel, and D. L. Abernathy, “Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Colloidal Palladium Using a Coherent X-Ray Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5437–5440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci Inst. (1)

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, “Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator,” Rev. Sci Inst. 70, 3214–3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

D. Lumma, L. B. Lurio, S. G. J. Mochrie, and M. Sutton, “Area detector based photon correlation in the regime of short data batches: data reduction for dynamic x-ray scattering,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3274–3289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Wyn Brown, editor, Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993).

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1976).

M. Sutton, “Coherent X-ray Diffraction,” in Third-Generation Hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources: Source Properties, Optics, and Experimental Techniques, Dennis M. Mills ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, 2002), Chap. 3.

F. Livet, F. Bley, R. Caudron, D. Abernathy, C. Detlefs, G. Grübel, and M. Sutton, “Kinetic evolution of unmixing in an AlLi alloy using x-ray intensity fluctuations spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E63, Article 036108 (7 Pages) (2000).

M. K. Corbierre, N. S. Cameron, M. Sutton, and K. Laaziri, “Polymer-Stablized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices,” in preparation.

K. Schaẗzel, “Single photon correlation techniques,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 2.

E. Geissler, “Dynamic light scattering from polymer gels,” in Dynamic Light Scattering: The method and some applications, Wyn Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford1993), Chap. 11.

B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic Press, New York1975), Sect. V.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scattering of Au particles in polystyrene (top). Black region is due to the shadow of a beam stop and the black arc consists of the wave-vectors for which fluctuations are shown (q=.028Å-1) in Fig. 2. The two directions of the wave-vector (horizontal and vertical) are labelled by qx and qy and q = q x 2 + q x 2 . (b) Circular average of (1a) (bottom). The 20 pixel wide stripe of the black arc contribute to the single point in this circular average for q=.028(±.0003)Å-1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The intensity fluctuations versus time for selected individual pixels from the 20 pixel wide arc of scattering at wave-vectors for which | q |=.028(+-.0003)Å-1. Increasing pixel number corresponds to increasing angle around the arc. Lighter colours are higher intensities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Two-time correlation functions, using averages over the arc in Fig. 1(a) (top). (b) Time correlation functions (bottom). The noisy signal (blue) is the single slice corresponding to the diagonal line in 3(a) (a function of t 2 -t 1). Since the function is symmetric in t 1 and t 2 only the portion for t 2>t 1 is shown. The less noisy signal (red) is a simple average over all slices. The black curve on top is g 2 calculated using the multitau algorithm which obtains correlations for longer times after averaging intensities over successively longer times [13].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time evolution of scattered intensity. Scattering was measured with a wavelength of 1.51 Å.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contour plots of two-time correlation functions for | q |=.1055. Contour levels are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The diagonal t 1=t 2 has been normalized to 1.0 after suppressing the effects of Poisson noise. The black dot indicates the time at which the peak maximum sweeps by this particular wave-vector.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Correlation functions for q=.0155 Å-1value and t 1=2163 s; 7920 s; 16230 s. Solid lines are the fits. For comparison, the dash-dot line is a Gaussian and dashed line is a Lorentzian with the same height and width as given by the fit.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g 2 = I ( t 1 ) I ( t 2 ) ( I ( t 1 ) I ( t 2 ) ) ,
D ( q , t ) = I ( q , t ) I ( q , t ) I ( q , t ) .

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